Arctic–Subarctic Ocean Fluxes

Defining the Role of the Northern Seas in Climate

  • Robert R. Dickson
  • Jens Meincke
  • Peter Rhines

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-x
  2. Bogi Hansen, Svein Østerhus, William R. Turrell, Steingrímur Jónsson, Héðinn Valdimarsson, Hjálmar Hátún et al.
    Pages 15-43
  3. Øystein Skagseth, Tore Furevik, Randi Ingvaldsen, Harald Loeng, Kjell Arne Mork, Kjell Arild Orvik et al.
    Pages 45-64
  4. Ursula Schauer, Agnieszka Beszczynska-Möller, Waldemar Walczowski, Eberhard Fahrbach, Jan Piechura, Edmond Hansen
    Pages 65-85
  5. Peter Rhines, Sirpa Häkkinen, Simon A. Josey
    Pages 87-109
  6. Eddy Carmack, Fiona McLaughlin, Michiyo Yamamoto-Kawai, Motoyo Itoh, Koji Shimada, Richard Krishfield et al.
    Pages 145-169
  7. Torben Koenigk, Uwe Mikolajewicz, Helmuth Haak, Johann H. Jungclaus
    Pages 171-191
  8. Humfrey Melling, Tom A. Agnew, Kelly K. Falkner, David A. Greenberg, Craig M. Lee, Andreas Münchow et al.
    Pages 193-247
  9. Fiammetta Straneo, François J. Saucier
    Pages 249-261
  10. Jürgen Holfort, Edmond Hansen, Svein Østerhus, Stephen Dye, Steingrímur Jónsson, Jens Meincke et al.
    Pages 263-287
  11. Mark C. Serreze, Andrew P. Barrett, Andrew G. Slater
    Pages 343-362
  12. Peili Wu, Helmuth Haak, Richard Wood, Johann H. Jungclaus, Tore Furevik
    Pages 363-384
  13. Rüdiger Gerdes, Michael Karcher, Cornelia Köberle, Kerstin Fieg
    Pages 405-425
  14. Svein Østerhus, Toby Sherwin, Detlef Quadfasel, Bogi Hansen
    Pages 427-441
  15. Bob Dickson, Stephen Dye, Steingrímur Jónsson, Armin Köhl, Andreas Macrander, Marika Marnela et al.
    Pages 443-474
  16. Toste Tanhua, K. Anders Olsson, Emil Jeansson
    Pages 475-503
  17. Johann H. Jungclaus, Andreas Macrander, Rolf H. Käse
    Pages 527-549
  18. Sirpa Häkkinen, Hjálmar Hátún, Peter Rhines
    Pages 551-567
  19. Igor Yashayaev, N. Penny Holliday, Manfred Bersch, Hendrik M. van Aken
    Pages 569-612
  20. Robert S. Pickart, Kjetil Våge, G. W. K. Moore, Ian A. Renfrew, Mads Hvid Ribergaard, Huw C. Davies
    Pages 629-652
  21. Thomas Haine, Claus Böning, Peter Brandt, Jürgen Fischer, Andreas Funk, Dagmar Kieke et al.
    Pages 653-701
  22. Sheldon Bacon, Paul G. Myers, Bert Rudels, David A. Sutherland
    Pages 703-722
  23. Back Matter
    Pages 723-736

About this book


The two-way oceanic exchanges that connect the Arctic and Atlantic oceans through subarctic seas are of fundamental importance to climate. Change may certainly be imposed on the Arctic Ocean from subarctic seas, including a changing poleward ocean heat flux that is central to determining the present state and future fate of the perennial sea-ice. And the signal of Arctic change is expected to have its major climatic impact by reaching south through subarctic seas, either side of Greenland, to modulate the Atlantic thermohaline ‘conveyor’. Developing the predictive skills of climate models is seen to be the most direct way of extending the ability of society to mitigate for or adapt to 'global change' and is the main justification for continuing an intense observational effort in these waters. As records have lengthened, they have shown that important aspects of oceanic exchange through subarctic seas are currently at a long-term extreme state, providing further motivation for their study. As one important example, the longest records of all show that the temperature of the main oceanic inflow to the Norwegian Sea along the Scottish shelf and slope, and the temperature of the poleward extension of that flow through the Kola Section of the Barents Sea have never been greater in >100 years. However, we are only now beginning to understand the climatic impact of the remarkable events that are currently in train in subarctic waters, and models remain undecided on some of the most basic issues that link change in our northern seas to climate. Reviewing the achievements of an intense recent observing and modelling effort, this volume intends to assemble the body of evidence that climate models will need if they are one day to make that assessment, quantifying the ocean exchanges through subarctic seas, describing their importance to climate as we currently understand it, explaining their variability, setting out our current ideas on the forcing of these fluxes and our improved capability in modelling the fluxes themselves and the processes at work. Much of that evidence is assembled here for the first time.

This book will be of interest to researchers and scientists in oceanographic and climate research institutions, fisheries laboratories, arctic/polar institutions, climate change policy advisors. 


Arctic Ocean Arctic change Atlantic Ocean Atlantic thermohaline circulation Coast Meteorology North Atlantic Ocean Ocean fluxes Scale Sea ice climate change satellite temperature wind

Editors and affiliations

  • Robert R. Dickson
    • 1
  • Jens Meincke
    • 2
  • Peter Rhines
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture ScienceUK
  2. 2.University of HamburgGermany
  3. 3.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Bibliographic information