This unique book written by Russian and Norwegian scientists is an analysis of studies based on extensive data analysis and numerical modelling simulations of the White Sea and provides a quantitative assessment of vulnerability of the White Sea marine ecosystems of future anthropogenic and, to some extent, climate change forcing. The authors address a wide range of issues, including geographical position and the paleogeological background of the White Sea Basin. They provide the most recent data on the White Sea bathymetry, examine the White Sea ecosystem profile, and provide extensive historical marine and riverine data records. An integrated assessment of the state of the ecology, vulnerability and sustainability of the White Sea is presented. They look specifically at the applications of satellite Earth observation (remote sensing) oceanographic investigations into changes in regional physical oceanography and ecology, provide extensive coverage of the problems of multi-faceted data assimilation in ocean modelling and conclude with a look at the present state of the art and future developments in this area of nature conservation.