Luis Frois: First Western Accounts of Japan's Gardens, Cities and Landscapes

  • Cristina Castel-Branco
  • Guida Carvalho

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xliii
  2. Cristina Castel-Branco, Guida Carvalho
    Pages 1-14
  3. Cristina Castel-Branco, Guida Carvalho
    Pages 15-57
  4. Cristina Castel-Branco, Guida Carvalho
    Pages 59-131
  5. Cristina Castel-Branco, Guida Carvalho
    Pages 133-155
  6. Cristina Castel-Branco, Guida Carvalho
    Pages 157-198
  7. Cristina Castel-Branco, Guida Carvalho
    Pages 199-222
  8. Cristina Castel-Branco, Guida Carvalho
    Pages 223-234
  9. Cristina Castel-Branco, Guida Carvalho
    Pages 235-238
  10. Back Matter
    Pages 239-241

About this book


This book focuses on Luis Frois, a 16th-century Portuguese Jesuit and chronicler, who recorded his impressions of Japanese gardens, cities and building practices, tea-drinking rituals, Japan’s unification efforts, cultural traditions, and the many differences between Europe and Japan in remarkable manuscripts almost lost to time. This research also draws on other Portuguese descriptions from contemporary sources spanning the years 1543 – 1597, later validated by Japanese history and iconography. Importantly, explorer Jorge Alvares recorded his experiences of discovery, prompting St. Francis Xavier to visit Japan in 1549, thus ushering in the “Christian Century” in Japan.

During this long period of accord and reciprocal curiosity, the Portuguese wrote in excess of 1500 pages of letters to European Jesuits that detail their impressions of the island nation—not to mention their observations of powerful public figures such as Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Sen no Rikyu. In addition to examining these letters, the authors translated and researched early descriptions of 23 gardens in Kyoto and Nara and 9 important cities—later visited by the authors, sketched, photographed and compared with the imagery painted on 16th-century Japanese screens.

However, the data gathered for this project was found mainly within five large volumes of Frois’ História do Japão (2500 pages) and his Treaty on Contradictions—two incomparable anthropological works that were unpublished until the mid-20th century for reasons detailed herein. His volumes continue to be explored for their insightful observations of places, cultural practices, and the formidable historical figures with whom he interacted.

Thus, this book examines the world’s first globalization efforts that resulted in profitable commerce, the introduction of Portuguese firearms that changed Japan’s history, scientific advances, religious expansion, and many artistic exchanges that have endured the centuries.


Azuchi-Momyama Gardens Portuguese/Japanese Studies Japanese Gardens 16th century Japan Frois History of Japan

Authors and affiliations

  • Cristina Castel-Branco
    • 1
  • Guida Carvalho
    • 2
  1. 1.Landscape Architecture Professor; Department of Natural Resources and Landscape, School of AgronomyUniversity of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.ACB Landscape Architecture StudioLandscape Architect, MLA University of LisbonLisbonPortugal

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020
  • Publisher Name Springer, Singapore
  • eBook Packages Engineering
  • Print ISBN 978-981-15-0017-6
  • Online ISBN 978-981-15-0018-3
  • Buy this book on publisher's site