This book provides a general review of the literature on underground structures, combined with new specifications, engineering case studies, and numerical simulations based on the authors’ research. It focuses on the basic concepts, theories, and methods of the design of underground structures. After an introduction, it covers various topics, such as elastic foundation beam theory and numerical analysis methods for underground structures, as well as the design of shallow underground structures, diaphragm wall structures, shield tunnel structures, caisson structures, immersed tube structures, and integral tunnel structures. It also includes tables for calculating elastic foundation beam. This book is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students majoring in urban underground space engineering, building engineering, highway engineering, railway engineering, bridge and tunnel engineering, water conservancy and hydropower engineering.