Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-vi
  2. Adnan Qayyum, Olaf Zawacki-Richter
    Pages 1-8 Open Access
  3. Colin Latchem
    Pages 9-24 Open Access
  4. Som Naidu
    Pages 25-27 Open Access
  5. Fredric Litto
    Pages 29-43 Open Access
  6. Maria Renata da Cruz Duran, Adnan Qayyum
    Pages 45-47 Open Access
  7. Tony Bates
    Pages 49-62 Open Access
  8. Terry Anderson
    Pages 63-64 Open Access
  9. Ulrich Bernath, Joachim Stöter
    Pages 65-79 Open Access
  10. Burkhard Lehmann
    Pages 81-83 Open Access
  11. Anne Gaskell
    Pages 85-98 Open Access
  12. Alan Tait
    Pages 99-101 Open Access
  13. Michael Beaudoin
    Pages 103-116 Open Access
  14. Gary E. Miller
    Pages 117-119 Open Access
  15. Adnan Qayyum, Olaf Zawacki-Richter
    Pages 121-131 Open Access

About this book


This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.

This book describes the history, structure and institutions of open and distance education in six countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Germany, the UK and the US. It discusses how open and distance education is evolving in a digital age to reflect the needs and circumstances of national higher education systems in these countries, and explores the similarities and differences between the ways in which they are organized and structured. It is the first book to make such comparisons and draw conclusions about the nature of open and distance education in the context of various national higher education systems.  In a digital era with growing use of online education as well as open and distance education, this book is particularly useful for policy-makers and senior administrators who want to learn about organizing and expanding open and distance education provision. It is also a valuable reference for researchers, academics and students interested in understanding the different approaches to open and distance education.


education systems open education distance learning distance and online education eLearning National higher education systems Open learning Open Universities open access

Editors and affiliations

  • Adnan Qayyum
    • 1
  • Olaf Zawacki-Richter
    • 2
  1. 1.Pennsylvania State UniversityState CollegeUSA
  2. 2.University of OldenburgOldenburgGermany

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2018
  • License CC BY
  • Publisher Name Springer, Singapore
  • eBook Packages Education Education (R0)
  • Print ISBN 978-981-13-0297-8
  • Online ISBN 978-981-13-0298-5
  • Series Print ISSN 2211-1921
  • Series Online ISSN 2211-193X
  • Buy this book on publisher's site