Private Education in China

Achievement and Challenge

  • Haitao Zhou
  • Qiang Liu
  • Jing Tian
  • Qian Li

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xix
  2. Haitao Zhou, Qiang Liu, Jing Tian, Qian Li
    Pages 1-12
  3. Haitao Zhou, Qiang Liu, Jing Tian, Qian Li
    Pages 13-78
  4. Haitao Zhou, Qiang Liu, Jing Tian, Qian Li
    Pages 95-110
  5. Haitao Zhou, Qiang Liu, Jing Tian, Qian Li
    Pages 111-128
  6. Haitao Zhou, Qiang Liu, Jing Tian, Qian Li
    Pages 129-167
  7. Haitao Zhou, Qiang Liu, Jing Tian, Qian Li
    Pages 169-211
  8. Haitao Zhou, Qiang Liu, Jing Tian, Qian Li
    Pages 213-216

About this book


This book takes an in-depth look at the development of the private education sector in modern China. Readers will find valuable data and materials never before presented in such an accessible and transparent way, together with analyses of the major changes and challenges in the course of this development. The book is organized both chronologically and by topic: it employs a past-present-future order that unites the general arrangement; at the same time, each specific subject is approached historically, not only to show the origins of the problem, but also to link it with the historical-comparative context, in which the evaluation of alternative policy choices become highly viable.

Further, the book provides a pioneering account of current problems, adopting a fresh perspective to address the most important aspects of Chinese private education reform. The elaboration on topics concerning private school assets, property rights, legal personality, school operators’ entrepreneurship, benefits and investment returns, school autonomy, and the development of teachers and students, is both empirically rich and highly insightful.

The book’s content is chiefly derived from years of fieldwork in private schools and from extensive interviews with hundreds of policy makers, school operators, managers, teachers and students. Since these people are self-conscious about themselves as the actors in and witnesses to the development of Chinese private education over the past three decades, the book places great emphasis on neutrality, allowing the private education landscape to unfold in the context of the privatization of the socialist system after 1978. The book offers an essential guide for anyone who wishes to understand the transformation of Chinese education. It is highly recommendable as a detailed introduction to Chinese education, or as a resource for comparative research on private education from an international perspective.


Chinese private education Ambiguity of school legal personality Reasonable returns on running private schools in China Private school autonomy Rights and interests of teachers and students Governance modernization Socialist marketing economy Ownership of school assets Private education supply and demand Public-private mix for education Minban Education

Authors and affiliations

  • Haitao Zhou
    • 1
  • Qiang Liu
    • 2
  • Jing Tian
    • 3
  • Qian Li
    • 4
  1. 1.Beijing Normal University BeijingChina
  2. 2.Beijing Normal University BeijingChina
  3. 3.Hangzhou Dianzi UniversityHangzhouChina
  4. 4.National Academy of Education Administration BeijingChina

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018
  • Publisher Name Springer, Singapore
  • eBook Packages Education Education (R0)
  • Print ISBN 978-981-10-4408-3
  • Online ISBN 978-981-10-4409-0
  • Series Print ISSN 2366-1658
  • Series Online ISSN 2366-1666
  • Buy this book on publisher's site