Discrete Optimization in Architecture

Architectural & Urban Layout

  • Machi Zawidzki

Part of the SpringerBriefs in Architectural Design and Technology book series (BRIEFSARCHIDE)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xiv
  2. Layout Optimization & Evaluation

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
  3. Crowd Simulation

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 51-51
    2. Machi Zawidzki
      Pages 53-79
  4. Back Matter
    Pages 105-105

About this book


This book presents three projects that demonstrate the fundamental problems of architectural design and urban composition – the layout design, evaluation and optimization. Part I describes the functional layout design of a residential building, and an evaluation of the quality of a town square (plaza).

The algorithm for the functional layout design is based on backtracking using a constraint satisfaction approach combined with coarse grid discretization. The algorithm for the town square evaluation is based on geometrical properties derived directly from its plan.

Part II introduces a crowd-simulation application for the analysis of escape routes on floor plans, and optimization of a floor plan for smooth crowd flow. The algorithms presented employ agent-based modeling and cellular automata.


Agent Based Modeling Aggregate objective function Architectural floor-plan Backtracking Bottleneck Coarse Grid Constraint satisfaction problem Crowd dynamics Discrete optimization Distance potential field Functional layout Grid rotation Gridization Heat map Human subjective evaluation Multi-objective Pedestrian traffic Regular (Platonic) tessellation Square (Plaza) evaluation Square triangular hexagonal grid

Authors and affiliations

  • Machi Zawidzki
    • 1
  1. 1.MITCambridgeUSA

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information The Author(s) 2016
  • Publisher Name Springer, Singapore
  • eBook Packages Engineering
  • Print ISBN 978-981-10-1105-4
  • Online ISBN 978-981-10-1106-1
  • Series Print ISSN 2199-580X
  • Series Online ISSN 2199-5818
  • Buy this book on publisher's site