Super El Niño

  • Li-Ciao Hong

Part of the Springer Theses book series (Springer Theses)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-viii
  2. Li-Ciao Hong
    Pages 1-6
  3. Li-Ciao Hong
    Pages 7-8
  4. Li-Ciao Hong
    Pages 9-31
  5. Li-Ciao Hong
    Pages 33-50
  6. Li-Ciao Hong
    Pages 51-57
  7. Li-Ciao Hong
    Pages 59-61
  8. Li-Ciao Hong
    Pages 63-65
  9. Back Matter
    Pages 67-68

About this book


This book offers a new perspective on those El Niños that grow to extraordinary magnitudes, putting forward the claim that these “super El Niños” should be grouped into an isolated cluster. All known super El Niños exhibit pronounced features that are seldom seen in regular El Niños. Super El Niño events, which are marked by a highly deterministic life cycle, will dominate the Earth’s climate for several years. This study identifies the pre-conditions and a booster mechanism that lead to the runaway growth of super El Niños,  which  is featured by the intense interaction between the anomalous circulation in middle/high latitudes and the ENSO source area. The study not only sheds new light on the fundamental mechanism of the ENSO but also contributes to improving its extended predictability.


El Niño and Southern Oscillation super El Niño pre-conditions of super El Niño super-ma La Niña Southern Hemisphere booster

Authors and affiliations

  • Li-Ciao Hong
    • 1
  1. 1.Academia SinicaRes Center for Environmental ChangesTaipeiTaiwan

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016
  • Publisher Name Springer, Singapore
  • eBook Packages Earth and Environmental Science
  • Print ISBN 978-981-10-0526-8
  • Online ISBN 978-981-10-0527-5
  • Series Print ISSN 2190-5053
  • Series Online ISSN 2190-5061
  • Buy this book on publisher's site