Miracle of Education

The Principles and Practices of Teaching and Learning in Finnish Schools (Second Revised Edition)

  • Hannele Niemi
  • Auli Toom
  • Arto Kallioniemi

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xiii
  2. Introduction: Current Educational Framing Factors and Conditions in Finland

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Jouni Välijärvi, Sari Sulkunen
      Pages 3-21
    3. Auli Toom, Jukka Husu
      Pages 41-55
    4. Kirsi Tirri
      Pages 57-68
  3. The Foundations: The Design of Educational System on Various Levels

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 69-69
    2. Kristiina Kumpulainen, Timo Lankinen
      Pages 71-82
    3. Erja Vitikka, Leena Krokfors, Leila Rikabi
      Pages 83-90
    4. Riitta Jyrhämä, Katriina Maaranen
      Pages 91-105
  4. Teaching and Learning for Life: Academic Subjects

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 107-107
    2. Heidi Krzywacki, Leila Pehkonen, Anu Laine
      Pages 109-123
    3. Jari Lavonen, Kalle Juuti
      Pages 125-144
    4. Liisa Tainio, Satu Grünthal
      Pages 145-156
    5. Arto Kallioniemi, Martin Ubani
      Pages 179-190
    6. Seija Kairavuori, Sara Sintonen
      Pages 211-225
  5. Reflections: Future Scenarions and Investments for Pathways of Success

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 227-227
    2. Jukka Salminen, Leena Tornberg, Päivi Venäläinen
      Pages 253-266
    3. Jenni Vartiainen, Maija Aksela, Lauri Vihma
      Pages 267-275
    4. Hannele Niemi, Auli Toom, Arto Kallioniemi
      Pages 277-283
  6. Back Matter
    Pages 285-292

About this book


"Finnish pupils’ success in international student assessment tests and the characteristics of the Finnish educational system are the focus of interest all around in the world. The significance of Finnish educational policy and societal atmosphere are continuously discussed. This book provides explanations, answers and reflections to these questions. Over 30 expert authors have contributed to this book by bringing their own specific research-based points of view.
The second edition of the book introduces the new national curriculum for basic education that now provides guidelines for school-based curricula. Students’ learning with engagement and schools as learning communities are core visions of the reform. The authors also reflect on the PISA 2012 results. The book gives an example on how to use PISA information for national improvements. In Finland, all evaluations are enhancement-led and this also includes PISA measurements.
The book illustrates how teaching and learning of different subjects is realized in Finnish schools and describes the essential characteristics and methods of teaching, learning materials and research on these issues.
The book provides important insight and reflections to international researchers, teachers, students, journalists and policy makers, who are interested in teaching and learning in Finnish schools. It shows the results of the systematic and persistent work that has been done on education and schooling in Finland.
The main features of education in Finland are:

Strong equity policy.
Teachers as autonomous and reflective academic experts.
Flexible educational structures and local responsibility for curriculum development.
Evaluation for improvements, not for ranking.
No national testing, no inspectorate.
Research-based teacher education.
Teachers’ high competence in content knowledge and pedagogy.
Trust in education and teachers."


Equity Curriculum Pisa measurements Finnish education Student learning

Editors and affiliations

  • Hannele Niemi
    • 1
  • Auli Toom
    • 2
  • Arto Kallioniemi
    • 3
  1. 1.University of HelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.University of HelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.University of HelsinkiFinland

Bibliographic information