© 2015

Life Cycle Impact Assessment

  • Michael Z. Hauschild
  • Mark A.J. Huijbregts

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-x
  2. Michael Z. Hauschild, Mark A. J. Huijbregts
    Pages 1-16
  3. Annie Levasseur
    Pages 39-50
  4. Joe L. Lane
    Pages 51-73
  5. Olivier Jolliet, Peter Fantke
    Pages 75-96
  6. Sebastien Humbert, Peter Fantke, Olivier Jolliet
    Pages 97-113
  7. Philipp Preiss
    Pages 115-138
  8. Ralph K. Rosenbaum
    Pages 139-162
  9. Rosalie van Zelm, Pierre-Olivier Roy, Michael Z. Hauschild, Mark A. J. Huijbregts
    Pages 163-176
  10. Andrew D. Henderson
    Pages 177-196
  11. Llorenç Milà i Canals, Laura de Baan
    Pages 197-222
  12. Stephan Pfister
    Pages 223-245
  13. Pilar Swart, Rodrigo A. F. Alvarenga, Jo Dewulf
    Pages 247-269
  14. Alexis Laurent, Michael Z. Hauschild
    Pages 271-300
  15. Norihiro Itsubo
    Pages 301-330
  16. Back Matter
    Pages 331-339

About this book


This book offers a detailed presentation of the principles and practice of life cycle impact assessment. As a volume of the LCA compendium, the book is structured according to the LCIA framework developed by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)passing through the phases of definition or selection of impact categories, category indicators and characterisation models (Classification): calculation of category indicator results (Characterisation); calculating the magnitude of category indicator results relative to reference information (Normalisation); and converting indicator results of different impact categories by using numerical factors based on value-choices (Weighting).

Chapter one offers a historical overview of the development of life cycle impact assessment and presents the boundary conditions and the general principles and constraints of characterisation modelling in LCA. The second chapter outlines the considerations underlying the selection of impact categories and the classification or assignment of inventory flows into these categories. Chapters three through thirteen exploreall the impact categories that are commonly included in LCIA, discussing the characteristics of each followed by a review of midpoint and endpoint characterisation methods, metrics, uncertainties and new developments, and a discussion of research needs. Chapter-length treatment is accorded to Climate Change; Stratospheric Ozone Depletion; Human Toxicity; Particulate Matter Formation; Photochemical Ozone Formation; Ecotoxicity; Acidification; Eutrophication; Land Use; Water Use; and Abiotic Resource Use. The final two chapters map out the optional LCIA steps of Normalisation and Weighting.


LCIA characterisation LCIA classification LCIA normalisation Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Weighting

Editors and affiliations

  • Michael Z. Hauschild
    • 1
  • Mark A.J. Huijbregts
    • 2
  1. 1.Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management EngineeringTechnical University of Denmark (DTU)LyngbyDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Water and Wetland ResearchRadboud UniversityNijmegenThe Netherlands

Bibliographic information


“It is very much both a text book and reference and reads much like the work of an individual author. … The visual effects are excellent, with very useful color charts. … The format is easy to read and the information in tables spaced well so they are comprehensible. … is highly recommended, for academics and industrialists alike, as the definitive volume on impact assessment and one could imagine young practitioners beginning their career reading the 15 chapters therein.” (David Hunkeler, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Vol. 20, 2015)

“We highly appreciate the volume for its comprehensive, consistent and well readable overview of LCIA. Information from a large variety of sources is brought coherently together, and the volume overall gives a good review of state-of-the-art science and practice and challenges ahead.” (J. Potting and G. Finnveden, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Vol. 20, 2015)