Climates and Societies — A Climatological Perspective

A Contribution on Global Change and Related Problems Prepared by the Commission on Climatology of the International Geographical Union

  • Masatoshi Yoshino
  • Manfred Domrös
  • Annick Douguédroit
  • Janusz Paszyński
  • Lawrence C. Nkemdirim

Part of the The GeoJournal Library book series (GEJL, volume 36)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xi
  2. Introduction

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
  3. Climate Changes and Variability

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 19-19
    2. Jiacheng Zhang, Yasunori Yasuda, Masatoshi Yoshino
      Pages 43-60
    3. Annick Douguédroit, Jean-Pierre Marchand, Marie-Françoise De Saintignon, Alain Vidal
      Pages 119-150
  4. Regional Scales Climates

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 151-151
    2. Lawrence C. Nkemdirim
      Pages 177-201
    3. K. U. Sirinanda
      Pages 203-234
    4. Ai-Liang Jiang
      Pages 279-307
    5. Tadeusz Niedzwiedz
      Pages 309-324
  5. Local Scale Climates

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 325-325

About this book

Introduction

The impact of climate on human activities and the effect of humans on cli­ mate are two of the most important areas of inquiry in climatology. These interactions conducted through physical, chemical and biological process­ es were described as early as Roman and Greek times. Marcus Vitruvius (75-25 B. C. ), a famous Roman engineer and architect, made the following observation about the climatic conditions necessary for founding a city: Land ideal for the health is slightly elevated and there should be neither fog nor frost. The direction of the slope and the distance to the swamps, lakes, and beaches must also be considered. The prevailing wind directions, observed by a wind tower at the center of the city, like Horologium at Athens, should be taken into consideration in city planning. The main and narrow streets should be placed in the middle angle of the two prevailing wind directions. Then the location of the Pantheons and squares should be decided. The influence of humans on climate was a major subject for discussion in the 19th century, inspired in part, by the rapid industrial growth and expanding deforestation of the time. D. L. Howard wrote brilliant pieces on the climate of London in the 1830s, while G . P. Marsh discussed the effects of forests on precipitation in the U. S . A. in the second half of the 19th century.

Keywords

Climatology Geoinformationssysteme Scale air pollution forestry transport

Editors and affiliations

  • Masatoshi Yoshino
    • 1
  • Manfred Domrös
    • 2
  • Annick Douguédroit
    • 3
  • Janusz Paszyński
    • 4
  • Lawrence C. Nkemdirim
    • 5
  1. 1.Institute of GeographyAichi UniversityToyohashiJapan
  2. 2.Department of GeographyMainz UniversityGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Geographyd’Aix UniversityFrance
  4. 4.Institute of Geography and Spatial OrganisationPolish Academy of ScienceWarsawPoland
  5. 5.Department of GeographyUniversity of CalgaryCanada

Bibliographic information

  • DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-1055-8
  • Copyright Information Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 1997
  • Publisher Name Springer, Dordrecht
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-90-481-4772-4
  • Online ISBN 978-94-017-1055-8
  • Series Print ISSN 0924-5499
  • About this book