Forest Condition in a Changing Environment

The Finnish Case

  • Eino Mälkönen

Part of the Forestry Sciences book series (FOSC, volume 65)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-ix
  2. Finnish Forests

    1. Eino Mälkönen
      Pages 1-4
    2. Helena Henttonen
      Pages 25-32
  3. Environmental Factors

    1. Heikki Tuomenvirta
      Pages 33-40
    2. Eero Kubin, Harri Lippo, Jarmo Poikolainen
      Pages 60-71
    3. Pekka Tamminen
      Pages 72-86
  4. Forest Condition

    1. Marja-Liisa Sutinen, Pekka Niemelä
      Pages 87-92
    2. Hannu Raitio, Pekka Tamminen, Jukka-Pekka Tuovinen, Pia Anttila
      Pages 93-102
    3. Marja-Liisa Sutinen, Hannu Raitio
      Pages 103-105
    4. Toini Holopainen, Elina Oksanen, Jarmo K. Holopainen
      Pages 106-112
    5. Sirkka Sutinen, Minna Kivimäenpää
      Pages 113-120
    6. Maija Salemaa, Martti Lindgren
      Pages 121-132
    7. Seppo Nevalainen, Jaakko Heinonen
      Pages 133-141
    8. Martti Lindgren, Maija Salemaa, Pekka Tamminen
      Pages 142-155
    9. Raisa Mäkipää, Juha Heikkinen, Kari Mikkola, Antti Reinikainen, Maija Salemaa
      Pages 156-161
    10. Jarmo Poikolainen, Mikko Kuusinen, Kari Mikkola
      Pages 162-170
    11. Jarmo Poikolainen, Mikko Kuusinen
      Pages 171-172
    12. Jarmo Poikolainen, Mikko Kuusinen, Kari Mikkola
      Pages 173-178
  5. Functioning of Forest Ecosystems

    1. Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari
      Pages 179-182
    2. Antti-Jussi Lindroos, John Derome, Michael Starr, Liisa Ukonmaanaho
      Pages 183-199
    3. Taina Pennanen, Pekka Vanhala, Oili Kiikkilä, Hannu Fritze
      Pages 200-202
    4. Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari, Tarja Lehto, Kirsi Makkonen
      Pages 203-217
    5. Aino Smolander, Mikko Kukkola, Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari, Raisa Mäkipää, Eino Mälkönen
      Pages 229-247
    6. Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari
      Pages 248-251
    7. John Derome, Tiina Nieminen, Antti-Jussi Lindroos
      Pages 252-259
    8. Hannu Fritze, Taina Pennanen, Jari Haimi, Anne Siira-Pietikäinen, Pekka Vanhala
      Pages 260-265
    9. Maija Salemaa, Ilkka Vanha-Majamaa, Antti Reinikainen, Hannu Nousiainen
      Pages 266-275
    10. Christian Uhlig, Satu Monni
      Pages 276-277
    11. Tiina Nieminen, John Derome, Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari, Sari Janhunen, Mikko Kukkola, Anna Saarsalmi
      Pages 278-283
  6. Forest and Soil Management

    1. Outi Priha, Aino Smolander
      Pages 289-295
    2. Eino Mälkönen, Teuvo Levula, Hannu Fritze
      Pages 296-300
    3. Eino Mälkönen, John Derome, Mikko Kukkola, Anna Saarsalmi
      Pages 301-323
    4. Tuula Aarnio
      Pages 324-327
    5. John Derome, Mikko Kukkola, Aino Smolander, Tarja Lehto
      Pages 328-337
    6. Maarit Kytö, Martti Vuorinen, Tuula Piri
      Pages 338-359
  7. Forest Condition in Finland — Concluding Remarks

    1. Eino Mälkönen, Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari, Martti Lindgren, Hannu Raitio
      Pages 361-367
  8. Back Matter
    Pages 369-382

About this book


The threats posed by air pollution and climate change have resulted in considerable public debate about forest condition and growth during the past two decades. Despite the massive input ofresearch resources, no clear answers have been found to these global questions. Although there have been substantial advances in our knowledge of the effects of air pollutants on the forests, many of the questions associated with forest condition are still open. Monitoring of forest condition at the national level started in Finland in 1985 in accordance with the methodology drawn up by the International Co-operative Programme on Assessments and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests, UN/ECE). Since then, research into forest condition and vitality has been one of the key areas in the research carried out by the Finnish Forest Research Institute. Three basic questions formed the starting point for the multidisciplinary, Forest Condition Research Programme: What changes are taking place in our forests? Why does forest condition vary, and why do trees appear to be suffering? How can forest condition be maintained through appropriate forest management? This report covers forest condition and changes in environmental factors on the of the latest findings, publications and expertise of researchers participated in basis the Forest Condition Research Programme. In addition to researchers from the Finnish Forest Research Institute, a large number of scientists from domestic and foreign universities and research institutes also made a considerable contribution to the research programme.


ecology ecosystem environment forest forest ecology pollution

Editors and affiliations

  • Eino Mälkönen
    • 1
  1. 1.Vantaa Research CentreFinnish Forest Research InstituteVantaaFinland

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2000
  • Publisher Name Springer, Dordrecht
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-90-481-5423-4
  • Online ISBN 978-94-015-9373-1
  • Series Print ISSN 0924-5480
  • Series Online ISSN 1875-1334
  • Buy this book on publisher's site