About this book
JACQUES S. BECKMANN & THOMAS C. OSBORN Extraordinary progress has been made in the analyses of the genetic structures of higher eukaryotic genomes. Only ten years elapsed between the initial proposals to use molecular DNA markers for the generation of a complete linkage map of the human genome [5, 17] and the first description of a 10 centimorgan map of one of its chromosomes , soon to be followed by others. The availability of molecular DNA markers, henceforth called genomic markers [for a review of their properties see 1, 2, 20], represents a milestone in genetics by providing the capacity for complete genetic coverage of all genomes. It is important to remember that the nature of the DNA polymorphism or of the specific method used to uncover it can be quite different for different marker loci. The genetic variation detected can be a result of a simple point mutation, a DNA insertion/deletion event, or a change in repeat copy number at some hypervariable DNA  or micro satellite  motif. Currently, the methods of detection can involve use of restriction endonucleases, nucleic acid hybridization, or DNA sequence amplification. Each of these sources of var iation and methods of detection can have utility for different applications. Furthermore, new approaches for the detection of DNA polymorphism are constantly emerging. The primary concern here is that the monitored poly morphism defines a genetic marker 'useful' for the desired application.
DNA Organe Organelle YAC hybridization