Alternative Wastewater Treatment

Low-Cost Small Systems, Research and Development Proceedings of the Conference held at Oslo, Norway, September 7–10, 1981

  • Arild Schanke Eikum
  • Robert W. Seabloom
Conference proceedings

Part of the Water Science and Technology Library book series (WSTL, volume 1)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-x
  2. Objectives of On-Site of Wastewater Disposal

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Robert W. Seabloom
      Pages 3-8
    3. Lasse Vråle
      Pages 9-22
  3. Quantity and Characteristics of Residential Wastewater

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 23-23
  4. Research on On-Site Disposal Methods in the US and Scandinavia — Past and Present

  5. The Soil as a Renovating Medium

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 91-91
    2. Richard J. Otis
      Pages 93-104
    3. Rolv Kristiansen
      Pages 121-128
    4. Rein Laak
      Pages 129-143
    5. Arne O. Stuanes
      Pages 145-152
    6. Thor Axel Stenström, Sven Hoffner
      Pages 169-181
  6. Site Selection Criteria for On-Site Disposal system

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 83-83
    2. Petter D. Jenssen
      Pages 199-212
  7. Design, Construction, and Function of Septic tank Soil Absorption System

  8. None water Carriage System

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 243-243
  9. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Methods

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 255-255
    2. W. C. Boyle, R. L. Siegrist, Chin C. Saw
      Pages 277-300
  10. State Regulation and Policy Regarding On-Site Wastewater Disposal System

  11. Back Matter
    Pages 333-350

About these proceedings


Following the end of World War II there was a major migra­ tion of population in the United States and Scandinavian countries to urban areas. As a result of this migration and in part due to the public works moratoria imposed during the war, a major pro­ gram of sewer construction was instigated, which resulted in the collection and subsequent concentration of large volumes of waste­ water at single discharge points. As the assimilative capacity of these receiving waters was exceeded, it led to or aggravated existing water pollution problems in these waters. To mitigate this degradation of water quality a massive program to construct wastewater treatment facilities was instigated. In addition, large amounts of money were spent on research to improve the technology of the conventional collection and treatment concept. In contrast, the wastewater disposal problem of the rural home owner received little attention, and in most cases the septic tank soil absorption system (ST-SAS) was the interim solution. In recent years there has been a fundamental change in the population growth pattern in the US and Scandinavian countries. It appears that a great many people are moving back to rural areas where they seem to prefer the suburban or small town envi­ ronment, yet at the same time want all the conveniences of urban life. The provision of proper wastewater disposal facilities presents a very perplexing problem, because the capital and operating costs of conventional sewers are usually financially impractical for rural areas.


Absorption Disposal Sites Filtration Infiltration wastewater wastewater treatment

Editors and affiliations

  • Arild Schanke Eikum
    • 1
  • Robert W. Seabloom
    • 2
  1. 1.Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA)Oslo 3Norway
  2. 2.Department of Civil Engineering Environmental Engineering & ScienceUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 1982
  • Publisher Name Springer, Dordrecht
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-94-009-7851-5
  • Online ISBN 978-94-009-7849-2
  • Series Print ISSN 0921-092X
  • Buy this book on publisher's site