Viral Zoonoses and Food of Animal Origin

A Re-Evaluation of Possible Hazards for Human Health

  • Oskar-Rüger Kaaden
  • Claus-Peter Czerny
  • Werner Eichhorn
Conference proceedings

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-VIII
  2. C.-P. Czerny, C. Zeller-Lue, A. M. Eis-Hübinger, O.-R. Kaaden, H. Meyer
    Pages 13-24
  3. A. Mercer, S. Fleming, A. Robinson, P. Nettleton, H. Reid
    Pages 25-34
  4. J. J. Bugert, G. Darai
    Pages 35-47
  5. C. A. Tidona, G. Darai
    Pages 49-56
  6. K. Bauer
    Pages 95-97
  7. C. Scholtissek
    Pages 99-103
  8. S. Herzog, I. Pfeuffer, K. Haberzettl, H. Feldmann, K. Frese, K. Rechter et al.
    Pages 183-190
  9. W. Werz, H. Hoffmann, K. Haberer, J. K. Walter
    Pages 245-256

About these proceedings


Since the central theme of this book is the transmission of disease agents through the food chain, we will examine influenza viruses from this perspective. Influenza A viruses are found in humans, pigs, horses, sea mammals, and also in wild aquatic and domestic birds [23]. How are they spread? Between mammals, influenza is an airborne infection, but between birds, influenza can be either an airborne or waterborne infection. Influenza viruses of aquatic birds periodically transmit to domestic birds sometimes with catastrophic effects; this transmis­ sion can be either airborne or waterborne. Less frequently, avian influenza viruses transmit to mammals and three to four times in the past century this transmission has initiated a pandemic of influenza in humans. The method of spread of avian influenza viruses to mammals remains unresolved, but could be either airborne or waterborne. In this report we will consider recent examples of interspecies transmission of influenza A viruses and the possible prevention of emergence of the next human pandemic which is considered imminent. The reservoirs of influenza A viruses The available evidence indicates that aquatic birds are the reservoirs of all 15 subtypes of influenza A viruses. We will first consider the replication of influenza A in aquatic birds. In wild ducks, influenza viruses replicate preferentially in the cells lining the intestinal tract, cause no disease signs, and 8 7 are excreted in high concentrations in the feces (up to 10 .


Assessment Infektionskrankheiten Prevention Public Health Virus infection infections infectious disease viral infection Übertragung

Editors and affiliations

  • Oskar-Rüger Kaaden
    • 1
  • Claus-Peter Czerny
    • 1
  • Werner Eichhorn
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Medical MicrobiologyLudwig-Maximilians-UniversityMunichFederal Republic of Germany

Bibliographic information