Much of the gains in survival over the last 50 years in pediatric oncology have occurred through successively more intensive treatment regimens and concomitant improvement in the supportive care required to manage the complications of such regimens. Supportive Care in Pediatric Oncology provides a thorough, up-to-date review of the medical literature to provide an evidence-basis and grading of recommendations for supportive care management. Where evidence is lacking, consensus guidelines and “expert” opinion are also graded based on the available literature to support such recommendations. Commonly encountered acute issues are addressed including the management of febrile neutropenia, prevention of infection and immunization practice; transfusion support and utilization of hematopoietic growth factors; tumor lysis syndrome and hyperleukocytosis; neurologic, cardiopulmonary and abdominal emergencies; pain, nausea and vomiting, and mucositis; nutritional issues; thrombosis and management of central venous catheters; and radiation side effects. Finally, knowledge gaps and opportunities for research within the supportive care field are highlighted.