Sex Steroids and the Cardiovascular System

  • Peter W. Ramwell
  • Gabor M. Rubanyi
  • Ekkehard Schillinger
Conference proceedings

Part of the Schering Foundation Workshop book series (SCHERING FOUND, volume 5)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XII
  2. Peter W. Ramwell, Estelle Ramey
    Pages 1-7
  3. Jürgen Bachmann, Ursula Ganten, Günter Stock, Detlev Ganten
    Pages 9-30
  4. Leonard Share, Joan T. Crofton
    Pages 31-51
  5. Mark J. Morton
    Pages 53-64
  6. Cees Kluft, Jan A. Gevers Leuven, Frans M. Helmerhorst
    Pages 95-110
  7. Andreas Süßmilch, Rupprecht Zierz, Karsten Parczyk, Krzystof Chwalisz, Karl-Heinrich Fritzemeier, Berthold Baldus
    Pages 111-128
  8. Marie L. Foegh
    Pages 129-137
  9. Michel Farhat, Sylvie Abi-Younes, Roberto Vargas, Raymond M. Wolfe, Robert Clarke, Peter W. Ramwell
    Pages 145-159
  10. Michael R. Adams, Janice D. Wagner, Thomas B. Clarkson
    Pages 161-175
  11. Back Matter
    Pages 199-201

About these proceedings


Evidence accumulated over the past decade show that gonadal steroid hormones participate in an important way in the physiological and pa­ thophysiological regulation of the cardiovascular system. The hor­ monal profile appears to put males at a disadvantage biologically in terms of cardiovascular diseases. The incidence of hypertension is higher in men than in pre-monopausal women indicating an influence of gender on the hypertensive disease process. Males and females have equivalent cholesterol levels until puberty but males suffer an ex­ ponential increase in heart disease in their forties, while the female rise does not start until a decade later, after menopause. Animal and human studies provided ample evidence, that estrogens lower the levels of low density lipoproteins and keep high density lipoproteins elevated. These changes may be advantageous in the prevention of heart diesease. Co­ ronary artery atherosclerosis has been shown to be more pronounced in ovarectomized female monkeys as in intact females. Androgen, con­ versely, lowers the high density lipoproteins and elevates low density lipoproteins. Regarding blood pressure, it is well established that hypertension is more severe or develops more rapidly in male than fe­ male rats in several genetic forms of hypertension, and that gonadal steroid hormones are probably playing an important role in explaining this observation. Risk factors of human hypertension and coronary heart dies ease include menopause and ovarectomy.


Herz-Kreislauf-System atherosclerosis cardiovascular cardiovascular actions cardiovascular function cardiovascular system circulation coronary heart disease heart heart disease hormone hypertension physiology steroid steroids

Editors and affiliations

  • Peter W. Ramwell
    • 1
  • Gabor M. Rubanyi
  • Ekkehard Schillinger
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and BiophysicsGeorgetown University Medical CenterUSA

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992
  • Publisher Name Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-3-662-02766-0
  • Online ISBN 978-3-662-02764-6
  • Series Print ISSN 0947-6075
  • Buy this book on publisher's site