Vegetation of the Earth and Ecological Systems of the Geo-biosphere

  • Heinrich Walter

Part of the Heidelberg Science Library book series (HSL)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XVI
  2. Introduction: The Classification of Ecological Systems

  3. General Section

    1. Heinrich Walter
      Pages 19-38
  4. Special Section

  5. Zonoecotone I/II — Semievergreen Forest

  6. Zonoecotone II/III — Climatic Savannas

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 107-112
  7. Zonoecotone III/IV — Semidesert

  8. Zonoecotone VI/VII — Forest-Steppe

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 220-223
    2. Heinrich Walter
      Pages 224-259
  9. Zonoecotone VI/VIII — Boreonemoral Zone

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 260-262
    2. Heinrich Walter
      Pages 263-282
  10. Zonoecotone VIII/XI — Forest Tundra

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 283-283
    2. Heinrich Walter
      Pages 284-290
  11. Summary

    1. Heinrich Walter
      Pages 291-294
  12. Conclusion from an Ecological Point of View

    1. Heinrich Walter
      Pages 295-302
  13. Back Matter
    Pages 303-320

About this book


We shall limit our observations to the conditions in natural ecosystems, since it would be beyond the scope of this book to embark upon a consideration of secondary, man-made ecosystems. 2. Classification of the Geo-biosphere into Zonobiomes The biosphere is the thin layer of the earth's surface to which the phenomena connected with living matter are confined. On land, this comprises the lowest layer of the atmosphere permanently inhabited by living organisms and into which plants extend, as well as the root-containing portion of the lithosphere, which we term the soil. Living organisms are also found in all bodies of water, to the very depths of the oceans. In a watery medium, however, cycling of material is achieved by means other than those on land, and the organisms (plankton) are so different that aquatic ecosystems have to be dealt with separately. The biosphere is therefore subdivided into (a) the geo-biosphere comprising terrestrial ecosystems, and (b) the hydro-biosphere, comprising aquatic ecosystems, which is the field of hydrobiologists (oceanographers and limnologists) . Our studies are confined to the geo-biosphere (Walter 1976), which constitutes the habitat of man and is, therefore, of special interest. The prevailing climate, being the primary independent factor in the environment, can be used as a basis for further subdivision of the geo-biosphere since the formation of soil and type of vegetation are dependent upon it (see p. 3), and it has not yet been substantially influenced by man.


Habitat Population Rain Zonobiom biome biosphere classification ecology ecosystem environment physiology temperature terrestrial ecosystem terrestrial ecosystems vegetation

Authors and affiliations

  • Heinrich Walter
    • 1
  1. 1.Stuttgart 70Germany

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985
  • Publisher Name Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-3-540-13748-1
  • Online ISBN 978-3-642-96859-4
  • Series Print ISSN 0073-1595
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