Evolution by Gene Duplication

  • Susumu Ohno

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XV
  2. Introduction

    1. Susumu Ohno
      Pages 1-2
  3. The Creation of Life Based on the Inherent Complementality between Purine and Pyrimidine Bases

  4. Mutation and the Conservative Nature of Natural Selection

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 21-21
    2. Susumu Ohno
      Pages 26-32
    3. Susumu Ohno
      Pages 32-40
    4. Susumu Ohno
      Pages 48-55
  5. Why Gene Duplication?

  6. Mechanisms of Gene Duplication

  7. Evolution of Vertebrate Genomes

  8. Back Matter
    Pages 147-160

About this book


It is said that "necessity is the mother of invention". To be sure, wheels and pulleys were invented out of necessity by the tenacious minds of upright citi­ zens. Looking at the history of mankind, however, one has to add that "Ieisure is the mother of cultural improvement". Man's creative genius flourished only when his mind, freed from the worry of daily toils, was permitted to entertain apparently useless thoughts. In the same manner, one might say with regard to evolution that "natural selection mere(y tnodifted, while redundanry created". Natural selection has been extremely effective in policing alleHe mutations which arise in already existing gene loci. Because of natural selection, organisms have been able to adapt to changing environments, and by adaptive radiation many new species were created from a common ancestral form. Y et, being an effective policeman, natural selection is extremely conservative by nature. Had evolution been entirely dependent upon natural selection, from a bacterium only numerous forms of bacteria would have emerged. The creation of metazoans, vertebrates and finally mammals from unicellular organisms would have been quite impos­ sible, for such big leaps in evolution required the creation of new gene loci with previously nonexistent functions. Only the cistron which became redun­ dant was able to escape from the relentless pressure of natural selection, and by escaping, it accumulated formerly forbidden mutations to emerge as a new gene locus.


Evolution adaptive Radiation evolution genes

Authors and affiliations

  • Susumu Ohno
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyCity of Hope Medical CenterDuarteUSA

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1970
  • Publisher Name Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-3-642-86661-6
  • Online ISBN 978-3-642-86659-3
  • Buy this book on publisher's site