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Short-Term Test Systems for Detecting Carcinogens

  • K. H. Norpoth
  • R. C. Garner

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XI
  2. Opening

    1. U. Wölcke
      Pages 1-2
  3. Significance and Validity of Short-Term Tests for Detecting Carcinogens — General Considerations

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 3-3
    2. H. Bartsch, C. Malaveille, A.-M. Camus, G. Brun, A. Hautefeuille
      Pages 58-73
    3. J. Ellenberger, G. R. Mohn
      Pages 94-102
    4. H. R. Glatt, H. Schwind, L. M. Schechtman, S. Beard, R. E. Kouri, F. Zajdela et al.
      Pages 103-126
  4. Correlations Between in Vitro and in Vivo Results — Investigations Using Different Test Systems

  5. Use of Mammalian Cells for Short-Term Testing of Carcinogens

  6. Methodological Aspects with Emphasis on Standardisation of Test Procedures and Interpretation of Test Results

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 257-257
    2. H. Greim, E. Deml, W. Göggelmann, G. Ludwig, L. Schwarz, T. Wolff
      Pages 259-272
    3. T. Matsushima, T. Sugimura, M. Nagao, T. Yahagi, A. Shirai, M. Sawamura
      Pages 273-285
    4. J. C. Topham
      Pages 302-311
    5. K. Norpoth, A. Reisch, A. Heinecke
      Pages 312-322
  7. New Experiences with Short-Term Tests — Response of Some Environmental Carcinogens

  8. Back Matter
    Pages 401-420

About these proceedings

Introduction

The varying cancer incidence from country to country and region to region suggests that en­ vironmental factors play a considerable role in the aetiology of cancer. Whether these factors in the environment moderate the effect of car­ cinogenic chemicals or whether they might them­ selves be carcinogenic is not known at the present time. What is known is that there are various chemicals, both naturally occurring and man-made, which can induce cancer in man. In the Western world estimates vary as to how much cancer is occupational in origin; the figures range from 1% to 40%. It is our feeling that probably about 10% of cancer has a direct oc­ cupational origin. Nevertheless this number is considerable and it behoves us therefore to identify those chemicals which are carcinogenic and to reduce human exposure. Recent work on the mode of action of carcinogenic chemicals suggests that the majority exert their effect through an activation step to give elec­ trophilic metabolites. Such metabolites have as a common feature the ability to react with cel­ lular nucleophiles to give covalently bound products. Such reaction will occur after carcino­ gen treatment of animals with nucleic acids par­ ticularly in target organs. It is reaction with nucleic acids that provides the basis of a num­ ber of short-term tests for carcinogens, since the basic composition of DNA is similar in micro-organisms and in human cells.

Keywords

DNA Mutagenicity cancer cell cell culture etiology liver mutagen screening

Editors and affiliations

  • K. H. Norpoth
    • 1
  • R. C. Garner
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Staublungenforschung und ArbeitsmedizinWestfälischen Wilhelms-UniversitätMünsterGermany
  2. 2.Cancer Research UnitUniversity of YorkHeslington, YorkGreat Britain

Bibliographic information

  • DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-67202-6
  • Copyright Information Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1980
  • Publisher Name Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-3-642-67204-0
  • Online ISBN 978-3-642-67202-6
  • Buy this book on publisher's site