Toll-Like Receptor Family Members and Their Ligands

  • Bruce Beutler
  • Hermann Wagner

Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 270)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-IX
  2. G. M. Barton, R. Medzhitov
    Pages 81-92
  3. B. Beutler
    Pages 109-120
  4. C. J. Kirschning, R. R. Schumann
    Pages 121-144
  5. S. Bauer, H. Wagner
    Pages 145-154
  6. O. Takeuchi, S. Akira
    Pages 155-164
  7. R. M. Vabulas, H. Wagner, H. Schild
    Pages 169-184
  8. Back Matter
    Pages 185-192

About this book


On occasion, the innate immune system is referred to as the "primitive" immune system. Perhaps this has dissuaded immu­ nologists from analyzing it as energetically as they have analyzed the adaptive immune system during the past two decades. But while its phylogenetic origins are indeed ancient, and though it is "of the first type", there is nothing crude, nothing unsophisti­ cated, and nothing "inferior" about innate immunity. On the contrary, the innate immune system has had time to achieve a level of refinement that is nothing short of dazzling, and a modicum of respect is at long last due. Any immune system has two cardinal functions. It must destroy a broad range of pathogens, and it must spare the host. The adaptive immune system has applied a modular solution to these problems. Each cell of the adaptive immune system is prescreened to eliminate those that would produce untoward interactions with self; each cell is pre-programmed to recognize a foreign epitope that the host might one day encounter. Hence, the duties of each individual lymphocyte are quite circumscribed.


Innate immune system bacteria granulocyte immune response immune system immunity innate immunity lymphocyte macrophage microbial pathogenesis pathogenesis protein proteins resistance toxin

Editors and affiliations

  • Bruce Beutler
    • 1
  • Hermann Wagner
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ImmunologyThe Scripps Research InstituteLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.Institut für Medizinische MikrobiologieImmunologie and Hygiene Technische Universität MünchenMünchenGermany

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002
  • Publisher Name Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-3-642-63975-3
  • Online ISBN 978-3-642-59430-4
  • Series Print ISSN 0070-217X
  • Buy this book on publisher's site