# 3+1 Formalism in General Relativity

## Bases of Numerical Relativity

- 140 Citations
- 3 Mentions
- 30k Downloads

Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 846)

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- 140 Citations
- 3 Mentions
- 30k Downloads

Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 846)

This graduate-level, course-based text is devoted to the 3+1 formalism of general relativity, which also constitutes the theoretical foundations of numerical relativity. The book starts by establishing the mathematical background (differential geometry, hypersurfaces embedded in space-time, foliation of space-time by a family of space-like hypersurfaces), and then turns to the 3+1 decomposition of the Einstein equations, giving rise to the Cauchy problem with constraints, which constitutes the core of 3+1 formalism. The ADM Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity is also introduced at this stage. Finally, the decomposition of the matter and electromagnetic field equations is presented, focusing on the astrophysically relevant cases of a perfect fluid and a perfect conductor (ideal magnetohydrodynamics). The second part of the book introduces more advanced topics: the conformal transformation of the 3-metric on each hypersurface and the corresponding rewriting of the 3+1 Einstein equations, the Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews approximation to general relativity, global quantities associated with asymptotic flatness (ADM mass, linear and angular momentum) and with symmetries (Komar mass and angular momentum). In the last part, the initial data problem is studied, the choice of spacetime coordinates within the 3+1 framework is discussed and various schemes for the time integration of the 3+1 Einstein equations are reviewed. The prerequisites are those of a basic general relativity course with calculations and derivations presented in detail, making this text complete and self-contained. Numerical techniques are not covered in this book.

3+1 formalism and decomposition ADM Hamiltonian Cauchy problem with constraints Computational relativity and gravitation Foliation and slicing of spacetime Numerical relativity textbook

- DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-24525-1
- Copyright Information Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012
- Publisher Name Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
- eBook Packages Physics and Astronomy Physics and Astronomy (R0)
- Print ISBN 978-3-642-24524-4
- Online ISBN 978-3-642-24525-1
- Series Print ISSN 0075-8450
- Series Online ISSN 1616-6361
- Buy this book on publisher's site