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Sensing the Environment: Regulation of Local and Global Homeostasis by the Skin's Neuroendocrine System

  • Andrzej T. Slominski
  • Michal A. Zmijewski
  • Cezary Skobowiat
  • Blazej Zbytek
  • Radomir M. Slominski
  • Jeffery D. Steketee

Part of the Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology book series (ADVSANAT, volume 212)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xv
  2. Andrzej T. Slominski, Michal A. Zmijewski, Cezary Skobowiat, Blazej Zbytek, Radomir M. Slominski, Jeffery D. Steketee
    Pages 1-6
  3. Andrzej T. Slominski, Michal A. Zmijewski, Cezary Skobowiat, Blazej Zbytek, Radomir M. Slominski, Jeffery D. Steketee
    Pages 7-26
  4. Andrzej T. Slominski, Michal A. Zmijewski, Cezary Skobowiat, Blazej Zbytek, Radomir M. Slominski, Jeffery D. Steketee
    Pages 27-36
  5. Andrzej T. Slominski, Michal A. Zmijewski, Cezary Skobowiat, Blazej Zbytek, Radomir M. Slominski, Jeffery D. Steketee
    Pages 37-39
  6. Andrzej T. Slominski, Michal A. Zmijewski, Cezary Skobowiat, Blazej Zbytek, Radomir M. Slominski, Jeffery D. Steketee
    Pages 41-50
  7. Andrzej T. Slominski, Michal A. Zmijewski, Cezary Skobowiat, Blazej Zbytek, Radomir M. Slominski, Jeffery D. Steketee
    Pages 51-54
  8. Andrzej T. Slominski, Michal A. Zmijewski, Cezary Skobowiat, Blazej Zbytek, Radomir M. Slominski, Jeffery D. Steketee
    Pages 55-63
  9. Andrzej T. Slominski, Michal A. Zmijewski, Cezary Skobowiat, Blazej Zbytek, Radomir M. Slominski, Jeffery D. Steketee
    Pages 65-70
  10. Andrzej T. Slominski, Michal A. Zmijewski, Cezary Skobowiat, Blazej Zbytek, Radomir M. Slominski, Jeffery D. Steketee
    Pages 71-74
  11. Andrzej T. Slominski, Michal A. Zmijewski, Cezary Skobowiat, Blazej Zbytek, Radomir M. Slominski, Jeffery D. Steketee
    Pages 75-80
  12. Andrzej T. Slominski, Michal A. Zmijewski, Cezary Skobowiat, Blazej Zbytek, Radomir M. Slominski, Jeffery D. Steketee
    Pages 81-85
  13. Andrzej T. Slominski, Michal A. Zmijewski, Cezary Skobowiat, Blazej Zbytek, Radomir M. Slominski, Jeffery D. Steketee
    Pages 87-87
  14. Back Matter
    Pages 89-114

About this book

Introduction

The skin, the body’s largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates and responds to a diverse range of stressors, including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuroendocrine-immune organ that is closely networked with central regulatory systems. These capabilities contribute to the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis. Specifically, epidermal and dermal cells produce and respond to classical stress neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones, production which is stimulated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), biological factors (infectious and non-infectious) and other physical and chemical agents.  Examples of local biologically active products are cytokines, biogenic amines (catecholamines, histamine, serotonin and N-acetyl-serotonin), melatonin, acetylocholine, neuropeptides including pituitary (proopiomelanocortin-derived ACTH, b-endorphin or MSH peptides, thyroid stimulating hormone) and hypothalamic (corticotropin-releasing factor and related urocortins, thyroid-releasing hormone) hormones, as well as enkephalins and dynorphins, thyroid  hormones,  steroids (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones, 7-δ steroids), secosteroids, opioids and endocannabinoids. The production of these molecules is hierarchical, organized along the algorithms of classical neuroendocrine axes such as the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA), hypothalamic-thyroid axis (HPT), serotoninergic, melatoninergic, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, steroid/secosteroidogenic, opioid and endocannabinoid systems. Disruptions of these axes or of communication between them may lead to skin and/or systemic diseases. These local neuroendocrine networks also serve to limit the effect of noxious environmental agents to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis. Moreover, the skin-derived factors/systems can also activate cutaneous nerve endings to alert the brain to changes in the epidermal or dermal environments, or alternatively to activate other coordinating centers by direct (spinal cord) neurotransmission without brain involvement. Furthermore, rapid and reciprocal communications between epidermal and dermal and adnexal compartments are also mediated by neurotransmission including antidromic modes of conduction. Lastly, skin cells and the skin as an organ coordinate and/or regulate not only peripheral but also global homeostasis.

 

Keywords

corticosteroids corticotropin-releasing factor melatonin neuroendocrine functions neuropeptides serotonin stress thyroid-related hormones

Authors and affiliations

  • Andrzej T. Slominski
    • 1
  • Michal A. Zmijewski
    • 2
  • Cezary Skobowiat
    • 3
  • Blazej Zbytek
    • 4
  • Radomir M. Slominski
    • 5
  • Jeffery D. Steketee
    • 6
  1. 1., Department of Pathology and Laboratory MUniversity of Tennessee, Health ScienceMemphisUSA
  2. 2., Department of HistologyMedical University of GdanskGdanskPoland
  3. 3., Department of Pathology and Laboratory MUniversity of Tennessee Health Science CMemphisUSA
  4. 4., Department of Pathology and Laboratory MUniversity of Tennessee Health Science CMemphisUSA
  5. 5.University of Tennessee Health Science CMemphisUSA
  6. 6., Department of PharmacologyUniversity of Tennessee Health Science CMemphisUSA

Bibliographic information

  • DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-19683-6
  • Copyright Information Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012
  • Publisher Name Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
  • eBook Packages Medicine
  • Print ISBN 978-3-642-19682-9
  • Online ISBN 978-3-642-19683-6
  • Series Print ISSN 0301-5556
  • Series Online ISSN 2192-7065
  • Buy this book on publisher's site