Immune Infertility

The Impact of Immune Reactions on Human Infertility

  • Walter K.H. Krause
  • Rajesh K. Naz

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xi
  2. Sperm Antigens

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Brett Nixon, R. John Aitken
      Pages 3-12
    3. Jagathpala Shetty, John C. Herr
      Pages 13-31
    4. B. M. Gadella
      Pages 33-48
    5. Walter K. H. Krause
      Pages 49-65
  3. Antisperm Antibodies (ASA)

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 66-66
    2. Monika Fijak, Sudhanshu Bhushan, Andreas Meinhardt
      Pages 69-77
    3. Maciej Kurpisz, Marzena Kamieniczna
      Pages 79-90
    4. Walter K. H. Krause, Michael Hertl
      Pages 91-96
    5. Walter K. H. Krause
      Pages 111-120
    6. Gary N. Clarke
      Pages 121-130
    7. Akiko Hasegawa, Koji Koyama
      Pages 131-141
  4. The Clinical Impact of Sperm Antibodies

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 142-142
    2. Felice Francavilla, Arcangelo Barbonetti
      Pages 145-153
    3. A. Agarwal, T. M. Said
      Pages 155-164
    4. Z. Ulcova-Gallova
      Pages 165-173
    5. Jerome H. Check
      Pages 175-184
    6. Rajesh K. Naz
      Pages 185-194
  5. Immune Contraception

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 194-194
    2. Katarina Jewgenow
      Pages 209-221
    3. G. P. Talwar, Shilpi Purswani, Jagdish Chandra Gupta, Hemant Kumar Vyas
      Pages 223-231
  6. Back Matter
    Pages 233-236

About this book


Infertility is defned as the inability to conceive after having unprotected intercourse for a year. Infertility is increasing worldwide and has various causes both in the male and the female partner. Immune reactions to sperm can contribute up to 2–30% of infertility. The sperm has both autoantigenic as well as isoantigenic potential, and is thus capable of p- ducing antisperm antibodies (ASAs) and sperm-reactive T cells in both infertile men and women. Also, over 75% vasectomized men produce autoantibodies to sperm that can cause a problem in regaining fertility even after successful re-anastomosis in vasovasostomy. Early claims regarding the incidence and involvement of ASAs in involuntary human infertility were probably overemphasized because of unreliable techniques and naivety concerning the complexity of the immune response and antigenic nature of the sperm cell. These factors, the lack of well-designed and controlled experimental studies, and the dearth of effective therapeutic modalities resulted in the confusion of the occurrence and importance of ASAs in human infertility. Consequently, evaluation of infertile couples for ASAs and their possible role in infertility was not considered a signifcant proposition. The development of more accurate assays and the discovery of mucosal immunity capable of responses independent of systemic immunity have caused inclusion of sperm cells and genital tract secretions in the analysis of ASAs.


Antigen assisted reproduction clinical trial contraception fertility immune chemistry immune contraception infertility lymphocytes medicine reproduction sperm antibodies testis treatment vaccine

Editors and affiliations

  • Walter K.H. Krause
    • 1
  • Rajesh K. Naz
    • 2
  1. 1.Klinik für Andrologie und VenerologieUniversitätsklinikum MarburgMarburgGermany
  2. 2.School of MedicineWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownU.S.A.

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009
  • Publisher Name Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
  • eBook Packages Medicine Medicine (R0)
  • Print ISBN 978-3-642-01378-2
  • Online ISBN 978-3-642-01379-9
  • Buy this book on publisher's site