Neuroanatomy and Pathology of Sporadic Parkinson's Disease

  • Heiko Braak
  • Kelly Del Tredici
Part of the Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology book series (ADVSANAT, volume 201)

About this book

Introduction

The proteinopathy sporadic Parkinson’s disease (sPD) is the second most frequent degenerative disorder of the human nervous system after Alzheimer’s disease. The a -synuclein inclusion body pathology (Lewy pathology) associated with sPD is distributed throughout the central, peripheral, and enteric nervous systems. The resulting nonrandom neuronal dysfunction and, in some regions, neuronal loss is reflected by a distinctive topographic distribution pattern of the Lewy pathology that, in the brain, has been staged. Except for olfactory structures and spinal cord constituents of the pain system, sensory components of the nervous system remain uninvolved or virtually intact. The most disease-related damage revolves around motor areas – particularly around superordinate centers of the limbic and visceromotor systems as well as portions of the somatomotor system. Vulnerable regions are interconnected anatomically and susceptible nerve cell types are not neurotransmitter-dependent.

Not all clinical symptoms emerging in the course of sPD can be explained by a lack of dopamine in the nigrostriatal system. These include autonomic dysfunction, pain, hyp- or anosmia, excessive daytime sleepiness, REM sleep behavioral disorder, depression, anxiety, cognitive decline, and dementia. Against the background of the normal morphology and anatomy, the authors analyze the pathoanatomy of sPD in the nervous system at various neuropathological stages and summarize the potential functional consequences of the lesions.

Keywords

Nervous System Parkinson Parkinson's disease Staging anatomy cognitive decline degenerative disorder depression dopamine motor dysfunction nigrostriatal system synucleinopathies tauopathies

Authors and affiliations

  • Heiko Braak
    • 1
  • Kelly Del Tredici
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Clinical NeuroanatomyGoethe University FrankfurtFrankfurt am MainGermany

Bibliographic information

  • DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-79850-7
  • Copyright Information Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2009
  • Publisher Name Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
  • eBook Packages Biomedical and Life Sciences
  • Print ISBN 978-3-540-79849-1
  • Online ISBN 978-3-540-79850-7
  • Series Print ISSN 0301-5556
  • About this book