Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-x
  2. Backgrounds of Educating Preclinical Students in Clinical Reasoning

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Olle ten Cate
      Pages 3-19 Open Access
    3. Eugène J. F. M. Custers
      Pages 21-33 Open Access
    4. Judith L. Bowen, Olle ten Cate
      Pages 47-63 Open Access
    5. Olle ten Cate, Steven J. Durning
      Pages 65-72 Open Access
  3. The Method of Case-Based Clinical Reasoning Education

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 73-73
    2. Angela van Zijl, Maria van Loon, Olle ten Cate
      Pages 75-83 Open Access
    3. Olle ten Cate
      Pages 85-94 Open Access
    4. Olle ten Cate, Maria van Loon
      Pages 95-108 Open Access
    5. Olle ten Cate, Gaiane Simonia
      Pages 109-119 Open Access
    6. Maria van Loon, Sjoukje van den Broek, Olle ten Cate
      Pages 121-132 Open Access
  4. Back Matter
    Pages 133-207

About this book


This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. 

This volume describes and explains the educational method of Case-Based Clinical Reasoning (CBCR) used successfully in medical schools to prepare students to think like doctors before they enter the clinical arena and become engaged in patient care. Although this approach poses the paradoxical problem of a lack of clinical experience that is so essential for building proficiency in clinical reasoning, CBCR is built on the premise that solving clinical problems involves the ability to reason about disease processes. This requires knowledge of anatomy and the working and pathology of organ systems, as well as the ability to regard patient problems as patterns and compare them with instances of illness scripts of patients the clinician has seen in the past and stored in memory. CBCR stimulates the development of early, rudimentary illness scripts through elaboration and systematic discussion of the courses of action from the initial presentation of the patient to the final steps of clinical management.

The book combines general backgrounds of clinical reasoning education and assessment with a detailed elaboration of the CBCR method for application in any medical curriculum, either as a mandatory or as an elective course. It consists of three parts: a general introduction to clinical reasoning education, application of the CBCR method, and cases that can used by educators to try out this method.


assessment of clinical reasoning encapsulation of knowledge context specificity diagnostic bias diagnostic errors dual process theory history of clinical reasoning illness scripts medical problem solving peer teaching problem-based learning semantic qualifiers Open Access

Editors and affiliations

  • Olle ten Cate
    • 1
  • Eugène J.F.M. Custers
    • 2
  • Steven J. Durning
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Research and Development of EducationUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Center for Research and Development of EducationUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Uniformed Services University of the Health SciencesBethesdaUSA

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2018
  • License CC BY
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Education Education (R0)
  • Print ISBN 978-3-319-64827-9
  • Online ISBN 978-3-319-64828-6
  • Series Print ISSN 1572-1957
  • Series Online ISSN 2542-9957
  • Buy this book on publisher's site