Alternatives for Dermal Toxicity Testing

  • Chantra Eskes
  • Erwin van Vliet
  • Howard I. Maibach

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xx
  2. Skin Irritation

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Nathalie Alépée, Marie Hélène Grandidier, José Cotovio
      Pages 25-39
    3. Helena Kandarova, Manfred Liebsch
      Pages 41-57
    4. Nathalie Alépée, Marie Hélène Grandidier, Carine Tornier, José Cotovio
      Pages 59-72
    5. Hajime Kojima, Masakazu Katoh
      Pages 73-80
    6. Oliver Engelking, Horst W. Fuchs, Dirk Weisensee
      Pages 81-86
  3. Skin Corrosion

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 87-87
    2. Nathalie Alépée, Marie Hélène Grandidier, José Cotovio
      Pages 107-125
    3. Helena Kandarova, Manfred Liebsch
      Pages 127-142
    4. Nathalie Alépée, Marie-Hélène Grandidier, José Cotovio
      Pages 143-157
    5. Oliver Engelking, Dirk Weisensee, Horst W. Fuchs
      Pages 159-166
  4. Skin Sensitization

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 197-197
    2. David A. Basketter, Ian Kimber, G. Frank Gerberick
      Pages 215-223
    3. G. Frank Gerberick, John A. Troutman, Leslie M. Foertsch, Petra S. Kern
      Pages 225-233
    4. Tzutzuy Ramirez, Annette Mehling, Robert Landsiedel
      Pages 249-262
    5. Susan Gibbs, Sander W. Spiekstra
      Pages 273-287
    6. Hitoshi Sakaguchi, Takao Ashikaga
      Pages 289-309
    7. Nathalie Alépée, Cécile Piroird, Laurent Nardelli
      Pages 311-330
    8. Nathalie Lambrechts, Greet Schoeters, Rosette Van Den Heuvel, Hilda Witters, Inge Nelissen, Jef Hooyberghs
      Pages 347-359
    9. Françoise Cottrez, Elodie Boitel, Claude Auriault, Hervé Groux
      Pages 361-375
    10. Donald Keller, Caroline Bauch, Prakash Patel
      Pages 377-391
    11. Malin Lindstedt, Kathrin Stephanie Zeller, Henrik Johansson, Carl Borrebaeck
      Pages 393-403
    12. Bruno Miguel Neves, João Demétrio Martins, Isabel Ferreira, Ana Silva, Maria Teresa Cruz
      Pages 417-435
    13. Philipp R. Esser, Stefan F. Martin
      Pages 449-454
    14. Erwin L. Roggen
      Pages 455-460
  5. UV-Induced Effects (Phototoxicity and Photoallergy)

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 461-461
    2. Lorena Rigo Gaspar, Camila Martins Kawakami, Carolina Gomes Benevenuto
      Pages 463-476
    3. Hajime Kojima, Kazuhiro Hosoi, Satomi Onoue
      Pages 477-482
    4. Helena Kandarova, Manfred Liebsch
      Pages 483-503
  6. Skin Genotoxicity

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 505-505
    2. Stefan Pfuhler, Kerstin Reisinger
      Pages 507-512
    3. Stefan Pfuhler, Kerstin Reisinger
      Pages 513-525
    4. Kerstin Reisinger, Stefan Pfuhler
      Pages 527-539
    5. Kerstin Reisinger, Stefan Pfuhler
      Pages 541-544
  7. Other Exploratory Areas of Relevance

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 545-545
    2. Lee Ann Applegate, Paris Jafari, Corinne Scaletta, Anthony de Buys Roessingh, Wassim Raffoul, Nathalie Hirt-Burri
      Pages 547-564
    3. Andrezza di Pietro Micali Canavez, Talita M. T. P. Silveira, Natalia de Albuquerque Vita, Ana Cristina Weihermann, Caroline Radoski Neumann, Desirée Cigaran Schuck et al.
      Pages 565-577
    4. Rico Brendtke, Bart De Wever, Florian Groeber, Jan Hansmann, Freia Schmid, Heike Walles
      Pages 579-592

About this book


This book provides comprehensive information on the alternative (non-animal) dermal toxicity test methods currently available for industrial, regulatory, and academic use and also explores potential future developments. It encompasses all areas of dermal toxicity, including skin irritation, skin corrosion, skin sensitization, UV-induced effects, and skin genotoxicity. An individual chapter is devoted to each test method, with coverage of the scientific basis, validation status and regulatory acceptance, applications and limitations, available protocols, and potential role within testing strategies. In addition, perspectives from the test developer are presented, for example regarding critical steps in the protocol, possible adaptations, and challenges and opportunities. The closing section addresses exploratory areas that may be of relevance for the future of dermal toxicity safety testing, including the validation and regulatory acceptance of integrated testing strategies, the use of alternative methods for infections and inflammatory diseases, novel complex skin models, and high-throughput screening techniques.

Dermal toxicity is an area in which alternatives to the use of animal testing have already gained scientific, industrial, and regulatory acceptance. Practitioners and researchers alike will find Alternatives for Dermal Toxicity Testing to be an ideal source of reliable, up-to-date information on all aspects of the available test methods and likely future directions.


Alternatives to animal testing Cosmetics In vitro toxicology Regulatory testing Safety testing

Editors and affiliations

  • Chantra Eskes
    • 1
  • Erwin van Vliet
    • 2
  • Howard I. Maibach
    • 3
  1. 1.SeCAMMagliasoSwitzerland
  2. 2.Innovitox Consulting & ServicesHoutenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of DermatologyUniversity of California School of MedicineSan FranciscoUSA

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer International Publishing AG 2017
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Medicine Medicine (R0)
  • Print ISBN 978-3-319-50351-6
  • Online ISBN 978-3-319-50353-0
  • Buy this book on publisher's site