Alternatives for Dermal Toxicity Testing

  • Chantra Eskes
  • Erwin van Vliet
  • Howard I. Maibach

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xx
  2. Skin Irritation

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Nathalie Alépée, Marie Hélène Grandidier, José Cotovio
      Pages 25-39
    3. Helena Kandarova, Manfred Liebsch
      Pages 41-57
    4. Nathalie Alépée, Marie Hélène Grandidier, Carine Tornier, José Cotovio
      Pages 59-72
    5. Hajime Kojima, Masakazu Katoh
      Pages 73-80
    6. Oliver Engelking, Horst W. Fuchs, Dirk Weisensee
      Pages 81-86
  3. Skin Corrosion

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 87-87
    2. Nathalie Alépée, Marie Hélène Grandidier, José Cotovio
      Pages 107-125
    3. Helena Kandarova, Manfred Liebsch
      Pages 127-142
    4. Nathalie Alépée, Marie-Hélène Grandidier, José Cotovio
      Pages 143-157
    5. Oliver Engelking, Dirk Weisensee, Horst W. Fuchs
      Pages 159-166
  4. Skin Sensitization

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 197-197
    2. David A. Basketter, Ian Kimber, G. Frank Gerberick
      Pages 215-223
    3. G. Frank Gerberick, John A. Troutman, Leslie M. Foertsch, Petra S. Kern
      Pages 225-233

About this book


This book provides comprehensive information on the alternative (non-animal) dermal toxicity test methods currently available for industrial, regulatory, and academic use and also explores potential future developments. It encompasses all areas of dermal toxicity, including skin irritation, skin corrosion, skin sensitization, UV-induced effects, and skin genotoxicity. An individual chapter is devoted to each test method, with coverage of the scientific basis, validation status and regulatory acceptance, applications and limitations, available protocols, and potential role within testing strategies. In addition, perspectives from the test developer are presented, for example regarding critical steps in the protocol, possible adaptations, and challenges and opportunities. The closing section addresses exploratory areas that may be of relevance for the future of dermal toxicity safety testing, including the validation and regulatory acceptance of integrated testing strategies, the use of alternative methods for infections and inflammatory diseases, novel complex skin models, and high-throughput screening techniques.

Dermal toxicity is an area in which alternatives to the use of animal testing have already gained scientific, industrial, and regulatory acceptance. Practitioners and researchers alike will find Alternatives for Dermal Toxicity Testing to be an ideal source of reliable, up-to-date information on all aspects of the available test methods and likely future directions.


Alternatives to animal testing Cosmetics In vitro toxicology Regulatory testing Safety testing

Editors and affiliations

  • Chantra Eskes
    • 1
  • Erwin van Vliet
    • 2
  • Howard I. Maibach
    • 3
  1. 1.SeCAMMagliasoSwitzerland
  2. 2.Innovitox Consulting & ServicesHoutenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of DermatologyUniversity of California School of MedicineSan FranciscoUSA

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer International Publishing AG 2017
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Medicine
  • Print ISBN 978-3-319-50351-6
  • Online ISBN 978-3-319-50353-0
  • About this book