Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-viii
  2. Luis Bértola, Jeffrey G. Williamson
    Pages 1-14 Open Access
  3. Long-Run Trends

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 15-15
    2. Pablo Astorga Junquera
      Pages 17-41 Open Access
    3. Javier E. Rodríguez Weber
      Pages 43-64 Open Access
    4. Moramay López-Alonso, Roberto Vélez-Grajales
      Pages 65-87 Open Access
    5. Raymundo M. Campos-Vazquez, Cristóbal Domínguez Flores, Graciela Márquez
      Pages 89-112 Open Access
    6. Justin R. Bucciferro
      Pages 171-194 Open Access
    7. María Magdalena Camou, Silvana Maubrigades
      Pages 219-241 Open Access
    8. Leticia Arroyo Abad, Peter H. Lindert
      Pages 243-282 Open Access
  4. The Recent Inequality Downturn

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 283-283
    2. Verónica Amarante, Antonio Prado
      Pages 285-315 Open Access
    3. Augusto de la Torre, Julian Messina, Joana Silva
      Pages 317-338 Open Access
    4. Diego Sánchez-Ancochea
      Pages 339-363 Open Access
    5. Judith Clifton, Daniel Díaz-Fuentes, Julio Revuelta
      Pages 387-406 Open Access
    6. Suzanne Duryea, Andrew Morrison, Carmen Pagés, Ferdinando Regalia, Norbert Schady, Emiliana Vegas et al.
      Pages 407-419 Open Access

About this book


This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.

This book brings together a range of ideas and theories to arrive at a deeper understanding of inequality in Latin America and its complex realities. To so, it addresses questions such as: What are the origins of inequality in Latin America? How can we create societies that are more equal in terms of income distribution, gender equality and opportunities? How can we remedy the social divide that is making Latin America one of the most unequal regions on earth? What are the roles played by market forces, institutions and ideology in terms of inequality?

In this book, a group of global experts gathered by the Institute for the Integration of Latin America and the Caribbean (INTAL), part of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), show readers how various types of inequality, such as economical, educational, racial and gender inequality have been practiced in countries like Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Mexico and many others through the centuries.

Presenting new ideas, new evidence, and new methods, the book subsequently analyzes how to move forward with second-generation reforms that lay the foundations for more egalitarian societies. As such, it offers a valuable and insightful guide for development economists, historians and Latin American specialists alike, as well as students, educators, policymakers and all citizens with an interest in development, inequality and the Latin American region.


Development Inequality Poverty Social Policy Latin America

Editors and affiliations

  • Luis Bértola
    • 1
  • Jeffrey Williamson
    • 2
  1. 1.Universidad de la RepúblicaMontevideoUruguay
  2. 2.University of WisconsinMADISONUSA

About the editors

Luis Bértola (Universidad de la República, Uruguay)

Professor at the Economic and Social History Program, director of the Ph.D. and Master Programme, since 2005; Visiting Professor at the University of Gothenburg since 2010; Member of the Bureau of the International Economic History Association 2009-2015; CEPR Associate; member of the Figuerola Institute, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid; Director of the Montevideo-Oxford Latin American Economic History Data Base. Was editor of the Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History Review. Co-author of The Economic Development of Latin America since Independence (Oxford University Press, 2012) and of several articles and book chapters of international publications during the last years. Has been advisor for ECLAC, IADB, ILO, NU and several national institutions in Uruguay and Latin America.

Jeffrey G. Williamson (Harvard University and University of Wisconsin-Madison)

The Laird Bell Professor of Economics, emeritus, Harvard University and Honorary Fellow, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Williamson is past President of the Economic History Association (1994-1995), Chairman of the Harvard Economics Department (1997-2000), and Master of Harvard’s Mather House (1986-1993).

Bibliographic information