Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XVIII
  2. The Cellular Automaton Interpretation as a General Doctrine

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Gerard ’t Hooft
      Pages 3-18 Open Access
    3. Gerard ’t Hooft
      Pages 19-27 Open Access
    4. Gerard ’t Hooft
      Pages 29-47 Open Access
    5. Gerard ’t Hooft
      Pages 49-56 Open Access
    6. Gerard ’t Hooft
      Pages 57-87 Open Access
    7. Gerard ’t Hooft
      Pages 89-90 Open Access
    8. Gerard ’t Hooft
      Pages 91-96 Open Access
    9. Gerard ’t Hooft
      Pages 97-99 Open Access
    10. Gerard ’t Hooft
      Pages 101-108 Open Access
    11. Gerard ’t Hooft
      Pages 109-117 Open Access
  3. Calculation Techniques

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 119-119
    2. Gerard ’t Hooft
      Pages 121-127 Open Access
    3. Gerard ’t Hooft
      Pages 129-134 Open Access
    4. Gerard ’t Hooft
      Pages 135-139 Open Access
    5. Gerard ’t Hooft
      Pages 141-145 Open Access
    6. Gerard ’t Hooft
      Pages 147-167 Open Access
    7. Gerard ’t Hooft
      Pages 169-179 Open Access
    8. Gerard ’t Hooft
      Pages 181-214 Open Access

About this book


This book presents the deterministic view of quantum mechanics developed by Nobel Laureate Gerard 't Hooft.

Dissatisfied with the uncomfortable gaps in the way conventional quantum mechanics meshes with the classical world, 't Hooft has revived the old hidden variable ideas, but now in a much more systematic way than usual. In this, quantum mechanics is viewed as a tool rather than a theory.

The book presents examples of models that are classical in essence, but can be analysed by the use of quantum techniques, and argues that even the Standard Model, together with gravitational interactions, might be viewed as a quantum mechanical approach to analysing a system that could be classical at its core. He shows how this approach, even though it is based on hidden variables, can be plausibly reconciled with Bell's theorem, and how the usual objections voiced against the idea of ‘superdeterminism' can be overcome, at least in principle.

This framework elegantly explains - and automatically cures - the problems of the wave function collapse and the measurement problem. Even the existence of an “arrow of time" can perhaps be explained in a more elegant way than usual. As well as reviewing the author’s earlier work in the field, the book also contains many new observations and calculations. It provides stimulating reading for all physicists working on the foundations of quantum theory.


Deterministic quantum mechanics Cellular automaton theory of quantum physics 't Hooft interpretation of quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics as a tool Superdeterminism in physics Reconciling Bell's theorem and determinism

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Theoretical PhysicsUtrecht University Institute for Theoretical PhysicsUtrechtThe Netherlands

About the authors

Gerard 't Hooft is professor of theoretical physics at Utrecht University, The Netherlands. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1999, together with his thesis advisor Martinus Veltman, for “elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions”. In his subsequent work he has made further major contributions in areas including black-hole physics, quantum gravity, the holographic principle, gauge theory, and the foundations of quantum mechanics.

Bibliographic information