Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xv
  2. Todd S. Rosenstock, Björn Ole Sander, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Mariana C. Rufino, Jonathan Hickman, Clare Stirling et al.
    Pages 1-13 Open Access
  3. Mariana C. Rufino, Clement Atzberger, Germán Baldi, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Todd S. Rosenstock, David Stern
    Pages 15-36 Open Access
  4. Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Björn Ole Sander, David Pelster, Eugenio Díaz-Pinés
    Pages 71-96 Open Access
  5. John P. Goopy, C. Chang, Nigel Tomkins
    Pages 97-117 Open Access
  6. Shem Kuyah, Cheikh Mbow, Gudeta W. Sileshi, Meine van Noordwijk, Katherine L. Tully, Todd S. Rosenstock
    Pages 119-134 Open Access
  7. Gustavo Saiz, Alain Albrecht
    Pages 135-162 Open Access
  8. Tek B. Sapkota, M. L. Jat, R. K. Jat, P. Kapoor, Clare Stirling
    Pages 163-174 Open Access
  9. Todd S. Rosenstock, Mariana C. Rufino, Ngonidzashe Chirinda, Lenny van Bussel, Pytrik Reidsma, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl
    Pages 175-188 Open Access
  10. Mark T. van Wijk, Charlotte J. Klapwijk, Todd S. Rosenstock, Piet J. A. van Asten, Philip K. Thornton, Ken E. Giller
    Pages 189-198 Open Access
  11. Back Matter
    Pages 199-203

About this book


​​This book provides standards and guidelines for quantifying greenhouse gas emissions and removals in smallholder agricultural systems and comparing options for climate change mitigation based on emission reductions and livelihood trade-offs. Globally, agriculture is directly responsible for about 11% of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and induces an additional 17% through land use change, mostly in developing countries. Farms in the developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia are predominately managed by smallholders, with 80% of land holdings smaller than ten hectares. However, little to no information exists on greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potentials in smallholder agriculture.  Greenhouse gas measurements in agriculture are expensive, time consuming, and error prone, challenges only exacerbated by the heterogeneity of smallholder systems and landscapes. Concerns over methodological rigor, measurement costs, and the diversity of approaches, coupled with the demand for robust information suggest it is germane for the scientific community to establish standards of measurements for quantifying GHG emissions from smallholder agriculture. Standard guidelines for use by scientists, development organizations will help generate reliable data on emissions baselines and allow rigorous comparisons of mitigation options. The guidelines described in this book, developed by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS) and partners, are intended to inform anyone conducting field measurements of agricultural greenhouse gas sources and sinks, especially to develop IPCC Tier 2 emission factors or to compare mitigation options in smallholder systems.


agriculture climate change mitigation greenhouse gas emissions land use change smallholder farming systems

Editors and affiliations

  • Todd S. Rosenstock
    • 1
  • Mariana C. Rufino
    • 2
  • Klaus Butterbach-Bahl
    • 3
  • Lini Wollenberg
    • 4
  • Meryl Richards
    • 5
  1. 1.World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)NairobiKenya
  2. 2.Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)NairobiKenya
  3. 3.Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research Atmospheric Environmental Research (IMK-IFU)International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)NairobiKenya
  4. 4.University of VermontCGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS)BurlingtonUSA
  5. 5.Gund Institute for Ecological EconomicsUniversity of VermontBurlingtonUSA

Bibliographic information