Cacao Diseases

A History of Old Enemies and New Encounters

  • Bryan A. Bailey
  • Lyndel W. Meinhardt

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xiii
  2. The Crop and Its Pathogens

  3. Moniliophthora roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa: History and Biology

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 61-61
    2. Harry C. Evans
      Pages 63-96
    3. Lyndel W. Meinhardt, Bryan A. Bailey
      Pages 97-135
    4. Jorge Maurício Costa Mondego, Daniela Paula de Toledo Thomazella, Paulo José Pereira Lima Teixeira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimares Pereira
      Pages 179-210
  4. Phytophthora spp. Causal Agents of Black Pod Rot

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 211-211
    2. S. Surujdeo-Maharaj, T. N. Sreenivasan, L. A. Motilal, P. Umaharan
      Pages 213-266
    3. Bryan A. Bailey, Shahin S. Ali, Andrews Y. Akrofi, Lyndel W. Meinhardt
      Pages 267-303
  5. Pathogens of Expanding Concern

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 305-305
  6. Pathogens of Local Concern and Potential to Spread

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 359-359
    2. Andrews Y. Akrofi, Ismael Amoako-Atta, Kofi Acheampong, Michael K. Assuah, Rachel L. Melnick
      Pages 361-382
    3. Odalys García Cabrera, Eddy Patricia López Molano, Juliana José, Javier Correa Álvarez, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães Pereira
      Pages 383-428
    4. Jolanda Roux, Martin P. A. Coetzee
      Pages 429-447
    5. Julie Flood, G. M. ten Hoopen, Ulrike Krauss, Andrews Akrofi
      Pages 449-480
  7. Non-microbial Maladies of Cacao

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 481-481
    2. Rachel L. Melnick
      Pages 483-499
    3. Andrews Y. Akrofi, Kofi Acheampong
      Pages 501-508
  8. Disease Management

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 509-509
    2. G. M. ten Hoopen, Ulrike Krauss
      Pages 511-566
    3. Osman A. Gutiérrez, Alina S. Campbell, Wilbert Phillips-Mora
      Pages 567-609
  9. Back Matter
    Pages 611-633

About this book


This book reviews the current state of knowledge concerning cacao pathogens and methods for their management. Topics discussed include the history, biology and genetic diversity of Moniliophthora (which causes witches’ broom and frosty pod rot) and Phytophthora species (which causes black pod rot) that cause diseases resulting in major losses to cacao production. Emerging pathogens such as Cacao swollen shoot virus and Ceratobasidium theobromae (which causes vascular streak dieback) are also discussed in detail, along with many pathogens of significant local concern. Most of these pathogens represent major risks to global cacao production should they expand into new areas, breaking out of their current limited distributions. By considering cacao diseases as a group, similarities in the available tools and techniques used in their management become apparent, as do their limitations. Gaps in our current knowledge of cacao pathogens and the management of the diseases they cause are detailed, and suggestions for future research directions are provided. This insight allows readers to consider cacao disease threats from a more comprehensive, global perspective and paves the way for an improved synergy of efforts between the various research programs, agencies, and industries, both private and public, with vested interests in cacao production, and cacao farmers.


Cacao plant pathogens Moniliophthora Phytophthora Witches’ broom disease Cacoa pod rot Breeding for resistance Theobroma cacao

Editors and affiliations

  • Bryan A. Bailey
    • 1
  • Lyndel W. Meinhardt
    • 2
  1. 1.USDA/ARSSustainable Perennial Crops LaboratoryBeltsvilleUSA
  2. 2.USDA/ARSSustainable Perennial Crops LaboratoryBeltsvilleUSA

Bibliographic information