Proportional Representation

Apportionment Methods and Their Applications

  • Friedrich Pukelsheim

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xxi
  2. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 55-70
  3. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 71-79
  4. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 80-94
  5. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 95-109
  6. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 117-125
  7. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 126-141
  8. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 156-176
  9. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 177-184
  10. Back Matter
    Pages 214-234

About this book


The book offers a rigorous description of the procedures that proportional representation systems use to translate vote counts into seat numbers. Since the methodological analysis is guided by practical needs, plenty of empirical instances are provided and reviewed to motivate the development, and to illustrate the results. Concrete examples, like the 2009 elections to the European Parliament in each of the 27 Member States and the 2013 election to the German Bundestag, are analyzed in full detail. The level of mathematical exposition, as well as the relation to political sciences and constitutional jurisprudence makes this book suitable for special graduate courses and seminars.


apportionment methodology electoral system design proportional representation systems

Authors and affiliations

  • Friedrich Pukelsheim
    • 1
  1. 1.Universität Augsburg Institut für MathematikAugsburgGermany

Bibliographic information