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Lipid-Soluble Antioxidants: Biochemistry and Clinical Applications

  • A. S. H. Ong
  • L. Packer

Part of the Molecular and Cell Biology Updates book series (MCBU)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XII
  2. Vitamin E: Tocopherols and Tocotrienols and Ubiquinones

    1. Girjesh Govil, Ratna S. Phadke, Sudha Srivastava
      Pages 27-46
    2. I. Tomita, Y. Zhou, M. Ezaki, T. Onda, T. Tomita
      Pages 65-75
    3. G. G. Duthie, D. B. McPhail, P. C. Morrice, J. R. Arthur
      Pages 76-84
    4. L. Z. Zhu, Y. P. He, J. H. Piao, Q. Y. Cai, C. P. Sun, J. Zh. Chang et al.
      Pages 92-104
    5. Angelo Azzi, Daniel O. Boscoboinik, Eric Chatelain
      Pages 123-133
    6. J. S. Charnock, T. M. Bridle, J. Turner, P. L. McLennan, M. Y. Abeywardena
      Pages 134-151
    7. K. Komiyama, M. Hayashi, S. Cha, M. Yamaoka
      Pages 152-159
    8. Helmut Sies, Michael E. Murphy, Paolo Di Mascio, Wilhelm Stahl
      Pages 160-165
    9. Michihiro Sugano, Ikuo Ikeda, Katsumi Imaizumi, Kazunori Koba, Takahisa Okamoto, Isao Niiya et al.
      Pages 166-177
  3. Carotenoids, Flavonoids and Retinoids

    1. James Allen Olson
      Pages 178-192
    2. Louise M. Canfield, Jesus G. Valenzuela, John W. Forage
      Pages 193-207
    3. Hoyoku Nishino, Michiaki Murakoshi, Hirokazu Kitana, Ryozo Iwasaki, Yoshito Tanaka, Miyuki Tsushima et al.
      Pages 228-242
    4. Y. M. Choo, S. C. Yap, C. K. Ooi, A. S. H. Ong, S. H. Goh
      Pages 243-254
    5. Thomas P. A. Devasagayam, Hans Ippendorf, Thomas Werner, Hans Dieter Martin, Helmut Siesa
      Pages 255-264
    6. Y. M. I. Chung, P. M. M. Chiu, H. L. Wong
      Pages 265-273
    7. S. S. Gambhir, B. L. Pandey, K. Shanti Devi, R. S. Banerjee, G. Dasgupta
      Pages 307-319
  4. Parasitic and Infectious Diseases

    1. Nicholas H. Hunt, Martin Kopp, Roland Stocker
      Pages 337-354
    2. S. Nakornchai, S. Anantavara
      Pages 355-362
    3. S. Kamchonwongpaisan, N. Vanitchareon, Y. Yuthavong
      Pages 363-372
    4. B. S. Das, D. I. Thurnham
      Pages 397-405
  5. Clinical Applications. Antioxidant Therapy

    1. W. P. T. James, Ann Ralph
      Pages 424-441
    2. Venugopal P. Menon, S. Sushma Kumari, A. Jayadeep, J. S. Suresh Kumar, Seleena Mathew, P. A. Kurup
      Pages 457-468
    3. M. Leichsenring, H. J. Bremer, H. M. Ahmed, M. D. Laryea, A. B. Bello, I. Lombeck et al.
      Pages 507-514
    4. H. J. Freisleben, F. Beyersdorf, H. Assadnazari Seewald, J. Simon, A. Hanselmann, G. Zimer
      Pages 515-534
    5. M. Hiramatsu, R. Edamatsu, H. Ohyama, A. Mori
      Pages 535-552
    6. J. C. Fruchart, G. Luc
      Pages 553-566
    7. Chaivat Toskulkao, Thirayudh Glinsukon
      Pages 567-574
    8. F. Atroshi, E. Antila, S. Sankari, J. Treuthardt, A. Gapor, H. Saloniemi et al.
      Pages 575-581
    9. R. Singkamani, M. Suttajit, T. Chiewchanwit, D. I. Thurnham
      Pages 582-589
    10. R. Kahl
      Pages 590-605

About this book

Introduction

Antioxidants inhibit the formation and spread of free radicals which can be damaging in biological systems. Free radicals form in biological systems through metabolism, but it is also realized that exogenous environmental sources, such as radiation, food, and drugs, contribute significantly to the generation of free radicals in biological systems. Being reactive species, free radicals are short-lived and do not travel far from cellular targets. Their concentration in biological systems is very low and is difficult to detect directly by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). Indirect methods of reactions of radicals with specific biomolecules are also sufficiently sensitive to detect quantitatively their presence. Thus the response of antioxidant defenses which react with radical species, can serve as an indirect measure that free radicals have been formed. Redox-based antioxidants change their oxidation state and antioxidants become free radicals themselves. Often, however, the antioxidants give rise to more persistent free radicals, sometimes owing to delocalization of the lone electron around ring structures (in vitamin E, ubiquinones, and certain carotenes). Persistent free radicals react only rarely and the precursors often can be regenerated in biological systems. In recent years, it is becoming clearer from biochemical studies on how the major lipophilic antioxidants work. Particular attention has been given to vitamin E and quinones found in animal and plant membranes and in carotenoids, for the protection of membranes in lipoprotein systems. Flavonoids form another rich and varied source of natural antioxidants.

Keywords

biochemistry biomolecules membrane metabolism spectroscopy

Editors and affiliations

  • A. S. H. Ong
    • 1
  • L. Packer
    • 2
  1. 1.Malaysian Palm Oil Promotion CouncilKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Dept. of Molecular and Cell Biology 251 Life Science AdditionMembrane Bioenergetics GroupBerkeleyUSA

Bibliographic information