This book reviews the current state of knowledge on, recent advances in, and future prospects of Montenegrin river basins in the context of anthropogenic activities. Edited by three respected experts in the field, the book begins with an introduction to the specific hydrogeological conditions in Montenegro and critical reflections on the impact of hydropower projects. It then reviews the vulnerability of river ecosystems, exploring potential genotoxic effects and water quality, and explaining typology and monitoring of these aspects, and particularly highlighting mollusk assemblages and monitoring of intermittent rivers. The closing chapters focus on the impact of river flooding and discuss controversial projects aiming to find an approach mutually acceptable to all stakeholders. Given its scope, the book is an indispensable resource for scientists in academia and the water industry, as well as for decision-makers in the field investigating the interactions between land and water, limnology and biota, and natural and cultural resources.