This book discusses the rapidly growing interest in economic diversification through partnerships between industry, university and government (IUGP), with a focus on the economic diversification of the state of Qatar. It provides a comparative account of the knowledge ecosystem in the USA, Norway, Singapore and Qatar, and offers an evolutionary, national economic-transformational perspective on legislation, institutional and cultural settings, intermediary structures, and support programs. Providing a broad overview of the knowledge ecosystems in these countries, it is suitable for readers at various learning levels. It also includes case studies and a concise comparison of the Global Innovation Index (GII) of the four countries, and explores in detail the under-par comparative performance of Qatar, revealing that the country is still at the engagement level of IUGP. Further, it proposes evidence-based recommendations and strategies, making it a valuable resource for researchers, graduate students and policymakers.