Answer Set Programming

  • Vladimir Lifschitz

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xi
  2. Vladimir Lifschitz
    Pages 1-5
  3. Vladimir Lifschitz
    Pages 7-28
  4. Vladimir Lifschitz
    Pages 29-50
  5. Vladimir Lifschitz
    Pages 51-70
  6. Vladimir Lifschitz
    Pages 71-91
  7. Vladimir Lifschitz
    Pages 93-107
  8. Vladimir Lifschitz
    Pages 109-127
  9. Vladimir Lifschitz
    Pages 129-146
  10. Vladimir Lifschitz
    Pages 147-147
  11. Back Matter
    Pages 149-190

About this book


Answer set programming (ASP) is a programming methodology oriented towards combinatorial search problems.  In such a problem, the goal is to find a solution among a large but finite number of possibilities. The idea of ASP came from research on artificial intelligence and computational logic. ASP is a form of declarative programming: an ASP program describes what is counted as a solution to the problem, but does not specify an algorithm for solving it.  Search is performed by sophisticated software systems called answer set solvers.

Combinatorial search problems often arise in science and technology, and ASP has found applications in diverse areas—in historical linguistic, in bioinformatics, in robotics, in space exploration, in oil and gas industry, and many others.  The importance of this programming method was recognized by the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence in 2016, when AI Magazine published a special issue on answer set programming.

The book introduces the reader to the theory and practice of ASP. It describes the input language of the answer set solver CLINGO, which was designed at the University of Potsdam in Germany and is used today by ASP programmers in many countries.  It includes numerous examples of ASP programs and present the mathematical theory that ASP is based on.  There are many exercises with complete solutions.


Answer set stable model logic programming declarative programming programming methodology nonmonotonic reasoning reasoning about action frame problem search planning

Authors and affiliations

  • Vladimir Lifschitz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

Bibliographic information