Inferences by Parallel Reasoning in Islamic Jurisprudence

Al-Shīrāzī’s Insights into the Dialectical Constitution of Meaning and Knowledge

  • Shahid Rahman
  • Muhammad Iqbal
  • Youcef Soufi

Part of the Logic, Argumentation & Reasoning book series (LARI, volume 19)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xxi
  2. Shahid Rahman, Muhammad Iqbal, Youcef Soufi
    Pages 145-214
  3. Back Matter
    Pages 215-268

About this book


This monograph proposes a new (dialogical) way of studying the different forms of correlational inference, known in the Islamic jurisprudence as qiyās. According to the authors’ view, qiyās represents an innovative and sophisticated form of dialectical reasoning that not only provides new epistemological insights into legal argumentation in general (including legal reasoning in Common and Civil Law) but also furnishes a fine-grained pattern for parallel reasoning which can be deployed in a wide range of problem-solving contexts and does not seem to reduce to the standard forms of analogical reasoning studied in contemporary philosophy of science and argumentation theory.

After an overview of the emergence of qiyās and of the work of al-Shīrāzī penned by Soufi Youcef, the authors discuss al-Shīrāzī’s classification of correlational inferences of the occasioning factor (qiyās al-'illa). The second part of the volume deliberates on the system of correlational inferences by indication and resemblance (qiyās al-dalāla, qiyās al-shabah). The third part develops the main theoretical background of the authors’ work, namely, the dialogical approach to Martin-Löf's Constructive Type Theory. The authors present this in a general form and independently of adaptations deployed in parts I and II. Part III also includes an appendix on the relevant notions of Constructive Type Theory, which has been extracted from an overview written by Ansten Klev. The book concludes with some brief remarks on contemporary approaches to analogy in Common and Civil Law and also to parallel reasoning in general.


Arabic Epistemology Arabic Logic Arabic Philosphy Constructive Type Theory Dialogical Logic Islamic Argumentation Islamic Law Islamic Legal Theory The Dialectical Forge Qiyās within Islamic Jurisprudence Abū Isḥāq al-Shīrāzī Co-Relational Inferences of the Occasioning Factor Co-Relational Inferences by Indication and Resemblance Immanent Reasoning and the dialogical constitution of logic Normativity and the Dialogical Framework Dialectical Structure of Qiyās al-Dalāla and Qiyās al-Shabah Dialogical Framework for Qiyās al-Dalāla and Qiyās al-Shabah Abū Isḥāq al-Shīrāzī’s System of Qiyās

Authors and affiliations

  • Shahid Rahman
    • 1
  • Muhammad Iqbal
    • 2
  • Youcef Soufi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyUniversité de LilleLilleFrance
  2. 2.Department of PhilosophyUniversité de LilleLilleFrance
  3. 3.Department of Classical, Near Eastern, and Religious StudiesUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Religion and Philosophy
  • Print ISBN 978-3-030-22381-6
  • Online ISBN 978-3-030-22382-3
  • Series Print ISSN 2214-9120
  • Series Online ISSN 2214-9139
  • Buy this book on publisher's site