Historical Perspectives on Democracies and their Adversaries

  • Joost Augusteijn
  • Constant Hijzen
  • Mark Leon de Vries

Part of the Palgrave Studies in Political History book series (PSPH)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xiii
  2. Introduction

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Joost Augusteijn, Constant Hijzen, Mark Leon de Vries
      Pages 3-15
  3. Learning to Deal with Anti-Democratic Groupings, 1870–1933

  4. New Forms of Mobilisation in the Age of Civil Resistance, 1960–1997

  5. Dealing with Opposition in the Post-Cold War Period, 1998–2019

  6. Conclusions

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 279-279
    2. Joost Augusteijn, Constant Hijzen, Mark Leon de Vries
      Pages 281-289
  7. Back Matter
    Pages 291-297

About this book


This book historicizes the debate over how democratic regimes deal with anti-democratic groupings in society. Democracies across the world increasingly find themselves under threat from enemies, ranging from terrorists to parties and movements that undermine democratic institutions from within. This compilation of essays provides the first historical exploration of how democracies have dealt with such anti-democratic forces in their midst and how this impacted upon what democracy meant to all involved. From its inception in the nineteenth century, modern democratic politics has included fundamental debates over whether it is undemocratic and dangerous to ban parties with anti-democratic objectives and whether democracies should defend themselves, if necessary with violence, against perceived anti-democratic forces. This volume shows that implicit conceptions of democracy and democratic repertoires become explicit, fluid, and contested throughout these confrontations, not only within democratic parties, but also among their adversaries. Both sides have, at times, used force or limited the expression of ideas, thus blurring the lines between who is democratic and who is not.  


Democratic regimes Elite government Autocracy Political movements National Socialism Communism Use of state force Political authority Economic system Nineteenth century Twentieth century Activism Violence

Editors and affiliations

  • Joost Augusteijn
    • 1
  • Constant Hijzen
    • 2
  • Mark Leon de Vries
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of HistoryLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Institute of HistoryLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Independent ResearcherAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG, part of Springer Nature 2019
  • Publisher Name Palgrave Macmillan, Cham
  • eBook Packages History History (R0)
  • Print ISBN 978-3-030-20122-7
  • Online ISBN 978-3-030-20123-4
  • Buy this book on publisher's site