Endotoxin Detection and Control in Pharma, Limulus, and Mammalian Systems

  • Kevin L. Williams

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xi
  2. Pharma

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Kevin L. Williams
      Pages 17-52
    3. Martine Caroff, Alexey Novikov
      Pages 53-93
    4. Kevin L. Williams
      Pages 95-155
    5. Kevin L. Williams
      Pages 157-201
    6. Kevin L. Williams
      Pages 203-268
    7. Kevin L. Williams
      Pages 269-329
    8. Yuyi Shen
      Pages 403-417
    9. Robert Porzio, Josiah Hosie
      Pages 419-466
    10. Johannes Reich, René Ørving, Anders Thorn, Gregory Devulder
      Pages 467-480
    11. Jay Bolden
      Pages 497-521
    12. Ned Mozier
      Pages 537-545
    13. Kevin L. Williams
      Pages 547-594
  3. Limulus

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 595-595
    2. Kevin L. Williams
      Pages 597-629
    3. Elena Gustchina, Kevin L. Williams
      Pages 631-682
    4. Klaus Brandenburg, Lena Heinbockel, Günther Weindl, Karl Heinz Wiesmüller, Tobias Schürholz, Wilmar Correa et al.
      Pages 683-706
  4. Mammalian

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 707-707
    2. Kevin L. Williams
      Pages 709-785
    3. Dominik Jarczak, Axel Nierhaus
      Pages 837-854
  5. Back Matter
    Pages 855-869

About this book


Endotoxin detection and control is a dynamic area of applied science that touches a vast number of complex subjects. The intersection of test activities includes the use of an ancient blood system from an odd “living fossil” (Limulus). It is used to detect remnants of the most primitive and destructive forms of life (prokaryotes) as contaminants of complex modern systems (mammalian and Pharma). 

Recent challenges in the field include those associated with the application of traditional methods to new types of molecules and manufacturing processes. The advent of “at will” production of biologics in lieu of harvesting animal proteins has revolutionized the treatment of disease. While the fruits of the biotechnology revolution are widely acknowledged, the realization of the differences in the means of production and changes in the manner of control of potential impurities and contaminants in regard to the new versus the old are less widely appreciated.

Endotoxin as an ancient, dynamic interface between lifeforms, provides a singular perspective from which to view the parallel development of ancient and modern organisms as well as the progress of man in deciphering the complexity of their interactions in his efforts to overcome disease.


endotoxin lipopolysaccharides pharmaceutical contaminants Pyrogen adjuvant limulus LAL (Limulus amebocyte lysate) depyrogenation fever immunogenicity

Editors and affiliations

  • Kevin L. Williams
    • 1
  1. 1.bioMérieux Inc.DurhamUSA

Bibliographic information