Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xii
  2. Wilhelm Heitmeyer, Sebastian Kurtenbach
    Pages 1-5 Open Access
  3. Sebastian Kurtenbach
    Pages 7-19 Open Access
  4. Sebastian Kurtenbach, Abdul Rauf
    Pages 21-38 Open Access
  5. Simon Howell, Steffen Zdun
    Pages 39-59 Open Access
  6. Sebastian Kurtenbach, Muhammad Zaman
    Pages 61-69 Open Access
  7. Sebastian Kurtenbach
    Pages 71-79 Open Access
  8. Muhammad Zaman
    Pages 81-91 Open Access
  9. Simon Howell
    Pages 93-106 Open Access
  10. Simon Howell, Sebastian Kurtenbach, Abdul Rauf, Muhammad Zaman, Steffen Zdun
    Pages 107-158 Open Access
  11. Simon Howell, Abdul Rauf, Muhammad Zaman, Steffen Zdun
    Pages 159-178 Open Access
  12. Wilhelm Heitmeyer, Sebastian Kurtenbach, Steffen Zdun
    Pages 179-189 Open Access
  13. Back Matter
    Pages 191-192

About this book


This book presents a comparative look at the norms and attitudes related to youth violence. It aims to present a perspective outside of the typical Western context, through case studies comparing a developed / Western democracy (Germany), a country with a history of institutionalized violence (South Africa), and an emerging democracy that has experienced heavy terrorism (Pakistan). Building on earlier works, the research presented in this innovative volume provides new insights into the sociocultural context for shaping both young people's tolerance of and involvement in violence, depending on their environment.

 This volume covers:

  • Research on interpersonal violence.
  • Thorough review of the contribution of research on gangs, violence, neighborhoods and community.
  • Analyses on violence-related norms of male juveniles (ages 16-21 years old) living in high-risk urban neighborhoods.
  • Intense discussion of the concept of street code and its use.
  • Application of street code concept to contexts outside the US.
  • An integrating chapter focused on where the street code exists, and how it is modified or interpreted by young men.

With a foreword by Jeffrey Ian Ross, this book aims to provide a broader context for research. It does so via a rigorous comparative methodology, presenting a framework that may be applied to future studies. This open access book will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, demography, psychology, and public health.


Youth Violence Youth Violence in Germany Cross-cultural Comparison of Youth Violence Youth Violence in South Africa Youth Violence in Pakistan Violence Research Emerging Democracy Sociocultural Context of Violence Terrorism and Culture Political Violence International and Comparative Criminology

Authors and affiliations

  • Wilhelm Heitmeyer
    • 1
  • Simon Howell
    • 2
  • Sebastian Kurtenbach
    • 3
  • Abdul Rauf
    • 4
  • Muhammad Zaman
    • 5
  • Steffen Zdun
    • 6
  1. 1.Institute of Interdisciplinary Research on Conflict and ViolenceBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany
  2. 2.Institute of CriminologyUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Social WorkUniversity of Applied Sciences MünsterMünsterGermany
  4. 4.Institute of Interdisciplinary Research on Conflict and ViolenceBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany
  5. 5.Department of SociologyQuaid-I-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  6. 6.Institute of Interdisciplinary Research on Conflict and ViolenceBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany

Bibliographic information