Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xvii
  2. Ally Kateusz
    Pages 1-17 Open Access
  3. Ally Kateusz
    Pages 19-48 Open Access
  4. Ally Kateusz
    Pages 49-65 Open Access
  5. Ally Kateusz
    Pages 67-100 Open Access
  6. Ally Kateusz
    Pages 101-130 Open Access
  7. Ally Kateusz
    Pages 131-149 Open Access
  8. Ally Kateusz
    Pages 151-182 Open Access
  9. Ally Kateusz
    Pages 183-191 Open Access
  10. Back Matter
    Pages 193-295

About this book


This book is open access under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

This book reveals exciting early Christian evidence that Mary was remembered as a powerful role model for women leaders—women apostles, baptizers, and presiders at the ritual meal.  Early Christian art portrays Mary and other women clergy serving as deacon, presbyter/priest, and bishop. In addition, the two oldest surviving artifacts to depict people at an altar table inside a real church depict women and men in a gender-parallel liturgy inside two of the most important churches in Christendom—Old Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome and the second Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. Dr. Kateusz’s research brings to light centuries of censorship, both ancient and modern, and debunks the modern imagination that from the beginning only men were apostles and clergy.


Priests Jesus Altars Virgin Mary female apostles Iconography catacomb art Mariology Marian Studies Open Access

Authors and affiliations

  • Ally Kateusz
    • 1
  1. 1.Wijngaards Institute for Catholic ResearchRickmansworth, LondonUK

Bibliographic information