Approaches in Bioremediation

The New Era of Environmental Microbiology and Nanobiotechnology

  • Ram Prasad
  • Elisabet Aranda

Part of the Nanotechnology in the Life Sciences book series (NALIS)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xvi
  2. Fabiana Lilian Martínez, Norma Beatriz Moraga, Neli Romano-Armada, María Florencia Yañez-Yazlle, Verónica Beatriz Rajal, Verónica Irazusta
    Pages 1-28
  3. Alejandro Ledezma-Villanueva, José Manuel Adame-Rodríguez, Elva T. Aréchiga-Carvajal
    Pages 29-42
  4. Yordanis Pérez-Llano, Liliana Martínez-Ávila, Ramón Alberto Batista-García
    Pages 43-59
  5. Haley P. Stein, Rafael Navajas-Pérez, Elisabet Aranda
    Pages 61-78
  6. Adriana Otero-Blanca, Jorge Luis Folch-Mallol, Verónica Lira-Ruan, María del Rayo Sánchez Carbente, Ramón Alberto Batista-García
    Pages 79-95
  7. Paula Maza-Márquez, Alejandro González-Martínez, Belén Juárez-Jiménez, Belén Rodelas, Jesús González-López
    Pages 135-184
  8. Luciana Melisa Del Gobbo, Verónica L. Colin
    Pages 185-197
  9. Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha, Piet N. L. Lens
    Pages 199-237
  10. Irina S. Moreira, Catarina L. Amorim, Cormac D. Murphy, Paula M. L. Castro
    Pages 239-280
  11. Anjana K. Vala, Bhumi Sachaniya, Bharti P. Dave
    Pages 281-300
  12. Yi Wei, Li-Na Chen, Zi-Yu Zhang, Chi Zhu, Shi-Hong Zhang
    Pages 317-341
  13. Shagufta Afreen, Rishabh Anand Omar, Neetu Talreja, Divya Chauhan, Mohammad Ashfaq
    Pages 369-392
  14. Back Matter
    Pages 393-403

About this book


Bioremediation refers to the clean‐up of pollution in soil, groundwater, surface water, and air using typically microbiological processes. It uses naturally occurring bacteria and fungi or plants to degrade, transform or detoxify hazardous substances to human health or the environment.

For bioremediation to be effective, microorganisms must enzymatically attack the pollutants and convert them to harmless products. As bioremediation can be effective only where environmental conditions permit microbial growth and action, its application often involves the management of ecological factors to allow microbial growth and degradation to continue at a faster rate. Like other technologies, bioremediation has its limitations. Some contaminants, such as chlorinated organic or high aromatic hydrocarbons, are resistant to microbial attack. They are degraded either gradually or not at all, hence, it is not easy to envisage the rates of clean-up for bioremediation implementation.

Bioremediation represents a field of great expansion due to the important development of new technologies. Among them, several decades on metagenomics expansion has led to the detection of autochthonous microbiota that plays a key role during transformation. Transcriptomic guides us to know the expression of key genes and proteomics allow the characterization of proteins that conduct specific reactions. 

In this book we show specific technologies applied in bioremediation of main interest for research in the field, with special attention on fungi, which have been poorly studied microorganisms. Finally, new approaches in the field, such as CRISPR-CAS9, are also discussed. Lastly, it introduces management strategies, such as bioremediation application for managing affected environment and bioremediation approaches. Examples of successful bioremediation applications are illustrated in radionuclide entrapment and retardation, soil stabilization and remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, plastics or fluorinated compounds. Other emerging bioremediation methods include electro bioremediation, microbe-availed phytoremediation, genetic recombinant technologies in enhancing plants in accumulation of inorganic metals, and metalloids as well as degradation of organic pollutants, protein-metabolic engineering to increase bioremediation efficiency, including nanotechnology applications are also discussed.


Environmental microbiology microbial nanotechnology soil biology soil pollution environmental toxicology nanobiotechnology

Editors and affiliations

  • Ram Prasad
    • 1
  • Elisabet Aranda
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Environmental Science and EngineeringSun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Institute of Water ResearchUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain

Bibliographic information