Toxicity Assessment Alternatives

Methods, Issues, Opportunities

  • Harry Salem
  • Sidney A. Katz

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xiii
  2. Recent Developments on Alternatives

  3. Current Trends and Future Directions

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 97-97
    2. Elaine Young
      Pages 99-102
  4. Mechanistically Based Test Methods as Alternatives

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 103-103
    2. Richard Dickerson, Ronald Kendall Sr.
      Pages 105-114
    3. Patrick Poulin, Martin Beliveau, Kannan Krishnan
      Pages 115-139
  5. Use of Alternatives in Hazard Assessment Initiatives

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 141-141
    2. R. J. Mioduszewski, C. J. Cao, M. E. Eldefrawi, A. T. Eldefrawi, D. E. Menking, J. J. Valdes
      Pages 143-153
    3. Robert J. Werrlein, Stephen D. Kirby, Janna S. Madren-Whalley
      Pages 175-183
    4. William J. Smith, James A. Blank, Rebekah A. Starner, Ronald G. Menton, Joy L. Harris
      Pages 197-204
    5. William J. Smith, Margaret E. Martens, Clark L. Gross, Offie E. Clark, Fred M. Cowan, Jeffrey J. Yourick
      Pages 205-212
    6. John C. Lipscomb, Patricia D. Confer
      Pages 227-240
  6. Validation, Regulatory Acceptance, and Animal Protection Perspectives

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 241-241
    2. Martin L. Stephens
      Pages 243-246
  7. Back Matter
    Pages 257-262

About this book


In Toxicity Assessment Alternatives, internationally known scientists review what has been accomplished thus far in developing acceptable alternatives to classical animal toxicity assessment methods. Authoritative chapters describe not only the many practical alternative approaches that have recently emerged, but also consider current trends and likely future approaches, as well as emerging automated assessment techniques. Hazard assessment applications and the validation of new alternative methods are also discussed. The methods described here will help toxicologists, cosmetic chemists, and pharmacologists greatly reduce, refine, or even possibly replace, the use of laboratory animals in their work. Life science researchers will also find many new opportunities for detecting endocrine disruptions. Regulatory officers will gain a new perspective on alternative assessment, environmental assessment, and risk assessment.
Significantly extending the efforts the National Institutes of Health, the European Union, and the ICCVAM, Toxicity Assessment Alternatives offers all those evaluating toxicity today a cutting-edge collection of practical and highly effective alternative methods.


Antigen chromium environment environmental assessment toxicity testing toxicology

Editors and affiliations

  • Harry Salem
    • 1
  • Sidney A. Katz
    • 2
  1. 1.Chemical Command, Aberdeen Proving GroundUS Army Soldier and BiologicalUSA
  2. 2.Rutgers UniversityCamdenUSA

Bibliographic information