The Neglected Ape

  • Ronald D. Nadler
  • Birute F. M. Galdikas
  • Lori K. Sheeran
  • Norm Rosen

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xi
  2. Orangutan: Man of the Forest

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-2
    2. G. Kaplan, L. Rogers
      Pages 3-12
    3. H. D. Rijksen
      Pages 13-21
  3. Conservation, Translocation, and Rehabilitation

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 41-43
    2. J. Sugardjito
      Pages 45-49
    3. L. K. Hiong, J. B. Sale, P. M. Andau
      Pages 51-59
    4. I. Lardeux-Gilloux
      Pages 61-68
    5. W. T. M. Smits, Heriyanto, W. S. Ramono
      Pages 69-77
  4. Orangutan Demography and Population and Habitat Viability Analysis

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 79-80
    2. M. Leighton, U. S. Seal, K. Soemarna, Adjisasmito, M. Wijaya, T. Mitra Setia et al.
      Pages 97-107
    3. C. P. van Schaik, S. Poniran, S. Utami, M. Griffiths, S. Djojosudharmo, T. Mitra Setia et al.
      Pages 109-116
    4. H. D. Rijksen, W. Ramono, J. Sugardjito, A. Lelana, M. Leighton, W. Karesh et al.
      Pages 117-122
    5. K. Soemarna, W. Ramono, S. Poniran, C. P. van Schaik, H. D. Rijksen, M. Leighton et al.
      Pages 123-128
  5. Social and Cognitive Behavior

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 149-151
    2. J. A. R. A. M. van Hooff
      Pages 153-162
    3. A. E. Russon, B. M. F. Galdikas
      Pages 191-197
    4. G. Shapiro, B. M. F. Galdikas
      Pages 199-212
  6. Basic Science and Captive Maintenance

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 213-215
    2. C. S. Asa, S. J. Silber, I. Porton, F. Fischer, K. Lenehan, M. Deters et al.
      Pages 217-222
    3. C. Muir, B. M. F. Galdikas, A. T. Beckenbach
      Pages 267-272
    4. R. Markham
      Pages 273-278
    5. J. J. C. Mallinson, J. B. Carroll
      Pages 279-292
  7. Back Matter
    Pages 293-300

About this book


The orangutan is the most highly endangered species of great ape. Orangutans are threatened by deforestation, poaching, the illegal pet trade, and the isolation and fragmen­ tation of dwindling wild populations. Their conservation is impeded by certain aspects of their ecology (e. g. , a rain forest habitat) and certain features of their life history (e. g. , an eight-to twelve-year interbirth interval). Added to the U. S. Endangered Species List in 1970, the orangutan is now clearly on the road to extinction. The number of wild orangutans in Borneo and Sumatra is currently estimated to have decreased to between 12,300 and 20,571 individuals. Only 2% of original orangutan habitat is protected and some of these areas are now being destroyed. Clearly, attention to ecology, demography, censusing, rehabilitation, and conservation is essential if the orangutan is to survive in the wild beyond the next century. The protection of orangutans is a complex, multifaceted problem, involving such pressing issues as human poverty, overpopulation, and the economic development of Southeast Asia. Although the orangutan has been placed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), more orangutans were sold illegally in Taiwan between 1990 and 1993 than are housed in all the world's zoos. In the past, scientific and public attention has centered on the African apes. For this reason, the sole Asian great ape, the orangutan, has been called the "neglected ape.


Fauna Flora development ecology morphology

Editors and affiliations

  • Ronald D. Nadler
    • 1
  • Birute F. M. Galdikas
    • 2
  • Lori K. Sheeran
    • 3
  • Norm Rosen
    • 4
  1. 1.Yerkes Regional Primate Research CenterEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Orangutan Foundation InternationalLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.California State UniversityFullertonUSA
  4. 4.University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Bibliographic information