© 1993

Natural Language Processing: The PLNLP Approach

  • Karen Jensen
  • George E. Heidorn
  • Stephen D. Richardson

Part of the The Kluwer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science book series (SECS, volume 196)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xv
  2. Karen Jensen, George Heidorn, Stephen Richardson
    Pages 1-11
  3. Alexis Manaster Ramer
    Pages 13-27
  4. Karen Jensen
    Pages 29-45
  5. Karen Jensen, George Heidorn, Lance Miller, Yael Ravin
    Pages 53-64
  6. Diana Santos
    Pages 101-118
  7. Judith Klavans, Martin Chodorow, Nina Wacholder
    Pages 119-133
  8. Jean-Louis Binot, Karen Jensen
    Pages 135-147
  9. Lucy Vanderwende
    Pages 161-173
  10. Jean-Pierre Chanod, Bettina Harriehausen, Simonetta Montemagni
    Pages 215-226
  11. Ee Ah Choo, Koh Mui Koong, Low Hwee Boon, Tong Loong Cheong, Wan Kwee Ngim, Wee Li Kwang
    Pages 227-245
  12. Lisa Braden-Harder
    Pages 247-261
  13. Taijiro Tsutsumi
    Pages 263-272
  14. Frédérique Segond
    Pages 273-284
  15. Wlodek Zadrozny, Karen Jensen
    Pages 285-301
  16. Back Matter
    Pages 303-324

About this book


Natural language is easy for people and hard for machines. For two generations, the tantalizing goal has been to get computers to handle human languages in ways that will be compelling and useful to people. Obstacles are many and legendary.
Natural Language Processing: The PLNLP Approach describes one group's decade of research in pursuit of that goal. A very broad coverage NLP system, including a programming language (PLNLP) development tools, and analysis and synthesis components, was developed and incorporated into a variety of well-known practical applications, ranging from text critiquing (CRITIQUE) to machine translation (e.g. SHALT). This books represents the first published collection of papers describing the system and how it has been used. Twenty-six authors from nine countries contributed to this volume.
Natural language analysis, in the PLNLP approach, is done is six stages that move smoothly from syntax through semantics into discourse. The initial syntactic sketch is provided by an Augmented Phrase Structure Grammar (APSG) that uses exclusively binary rules and aims to produce some reasonable analysis for any input string. Its `approximate' analysis passes to the reassignment component, which takes the default syntactic attachments and adjusts them, using semantic information obtained by parsing definitions and example sentences from machine-readable dictionaries. This technique is an example of one facet of the PLNLP approach: the use of natural language itself as a knowledge representation language -- an innovation that permits a wide variety of online text materials to be exploited as sources of semantic information.
The next stage computes the intrasential argument structure and resolves all references, both NP- and VP-anaphora, that can be treated at this point in the processing. Subsequently, additional components, currently not so well developed as the earlier ones, handle the further disambiguation of word senses, the normalization of paraphrases, and the construction of a paragraph (discourse) model by joining sentential semantic graphs.
Natural Language Processing: The PLNLP Approach acquaints the reader with the theory and application of a working, real-world, domain-free NLP system, and attempts to bridge the gap between computational and theoretical models of linguistic structure. It provides a valuable resource for students, teachers, and researchers in the areas of computational linguistics, natural processing, artificial intelligence, and information science.


Parsing Syntax algorithms artificial intelligence computational linguistics intelligence knowledge base knowledge representation linguistics machine translation natural language natural language processing programming programming language semantics

Editors and affiliations

  • Karen Jensen
    • 1
  • George E. Heidorn
    • 1
  • Stephen D. Richardson
    • 1
  1. 1.Microsoft ResearchMicrosoft CorporationRedmondUSA

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Natural Language Processing: The PLNLP Approach
  • Editors Karen Jensen
    George E. Heidorn
    Stephen D. Richardson
  • Series Title The Kluwer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer-Verlag US 1993
  • Publisher Name Springer, Boston, MA
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-0-7923-9279-8
  • Softcover ISBN 978-1-4613-6389-7
  • eBook ISBN 978-1-4615-3170-8
  • Series ISSN 0893-3405
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages XVII, 324
  • Number of Illustrations 2 b/w illustrations, 0 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Natural Language Processing (NLP)
    Artificial Intelligence
    Computational Linguistics
  • Buy this book on publisher's site