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Target Pattern Recognition in Innate Immunity

  • Uday Kishore

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 653)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xx
  2. Subhankar Mukhopadhyay, Annette Plüddemann, Siamon Gordon
    Pages 1-14
  3. Stefan Bauer, Thomas Müller, Svetlana Hamm
    Pages 15-34
  4. Tanja Langefeld, Walid Mohamed, Rohit Ghai, Trinad Chakrabotty
    Pages 48-57
  5. Patrick Waters, Mudit Vaid, Uday Kishore, Taruna Madan
    Pages 74-97
  6. Alok Agrawal, Prem Prakash Singh, Barbara Bottazzi, Cecilia Garlanda, Alberto Mantovani
    Pages 98-116
  7. Yu-Hoi Kang, Lee Aun Tan, Maria V. Carroll, Madeleine E. Gentle, Robert B. Sim
    Pages 117-128
  8. Yoshinobu Nakanishi, Peter M. Henson, Akiko Shiratsuchi
    Pages 129-138
  9. Damien V. Cordery, Britta C. Urban
    Pages 175-184
  10. Anthony G. Tsolaki
    Pages 185-197
  11. Back Matter
    Pages 199-202

About this book

Introduction

Target pattern recognition in innate immunity is responsible for the immediate, usually protective, responses shown against invading microorganisms, and it is the principal feature of self and non-self recognition by virtue of the recognition of structures on the microbial pathogens, which are not found on host cells. This is an area that has been very actively researched, over approximately the past 12 years, and therefore this volume provides a timely comprehensive, and up to date, summary of the types and range of cell surface, intracellular, and secreted, host proteins involved in the recognition of microbial products, and of the protective mechanisms triggered as a result of the recognition events.

The Toll-like receptors, first described in Drosophila and now well-characterised on human cells, provide an excellent demonstration of the wide range of different microbial products recognised by this family of receptors and of the signalling pathways which are triggered thus leading to induction of inflammatory cytokines and the activation of genes producing antimicrobial products. In addition, several cell surface proteins involved in target pattern recognition have been described on the surfaces of macrophages (macrophage mannose receptor and macrophage scavenger receptors), and on dendritic cells (DEC205), and to be involved with the uptake and clearance of whole microorganisms and polyanioic ligands. Pattern recognition is also utilised by intracellular receptors, with NOD-like receptors in the cytosol recognizing microbial molecules and activating the production of inflammatory cytokines or pathways that induce the production of inflammatory molecules. Secreted proteins, such as the pentraxins, which includes the acute phase reacting, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid protein (SAP), and the collectins (mannan binding lectin, lung surfactant protein A and D) and ficolins can also readily recruit killing and clearance systems. Indeed, the serum complement system, which is one of the major defence systems in the bloodstream, is efficiently activated by CR P on its binding to the phosphocholine groups of microbial phospholipids—and the subsequent interaction of the bound CR P with C1q—to give classical pathway activation, or MBL, or ficolin, binding to arrays of mannose or N-acetyl-glucosamine residues, respectively, on the surfaces of microorganisms—to give lectin pathway activation. Also, in addition to the activation and clearance events associated with complement activation by some of the secreted pattern recognition receptors, it is accepted that all these pattern recognition receptors can generally accelerate the uptake and clearance of microbes via phagocytic cells.

In view of the growing interest in the cross-talk between innate and adaptive immunity, a thorough understanding of the initial recognition and triggering events, mediated via innate immune receptors, as addressed in this volume, is clearly very useful in helping to also fully understand the mechanisms of activation and control of the adaptive immune system—and to allow a full assessment of the relative roles played by innate immunity and adaptive immunity against a particular infection in higher organisms.

Keywords

autoimmunity bacteria cytokine diseases immunity infection innate immunity interferon macrophages parasite pattern pattern recognition proteins protozoa tuberculosis

Editors and affiliations

  • Uday Kishore
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Human Immunology and Infection Biology, Biosciences Division, School of Health Sciences and Social CareBrunei UniversityUxbridge, LondonUK

Bibliographic information