Pine Wilt Disease: A Worldwide Threat to Forest Ecosystems

  • Manuel M. Mota
  • Paulo Vieira

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XVIII
  2. Pine Wilt Disease: Global Issues, Trade and Economic Impact

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-3
    2. Simon A. Lawson, Shiroma Sathyapala
      Pages 41-58
    3. Süleyman Akbulut, Beşir Yüksel, Ismail Baysal, Paulo Vieira, Manuel Mota
      Pages 59-67
    4. Ute Schönfeld, Helen Braasch, Wolfgang Burgermeister, Helmut Bröther
      Pages 69-74
    5. Jianfeng Gu, Jiancheng Zhang, Xianfeng Chen, Helen Braasch, Wolfgang Burgermeister
      Pages 83-88
  3. Biology and Microbial Inter-Relationships

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 89-90
    2. Koichi Hasegawa, Manuel Mota, Kazuyoshi Futai, Johji Miwa
      Pages 91-100
    3. Yu Wang, Toshihiro Yamada, Daisuke Sakaue, Kazuo Suzuki
      Pages 115-128
  4. PWN Taxonomy and Detection Methods

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 129-132
    2. Jonathan D. Eisenback, Paulo Vieira, Manuel Mota, Alexander Ryss
      Pages 133-138
    3. Kai Metge, Helen Braasch, Jianfeng Gu, Wolfgang Burgermeister
      Pages 151-164
    4. Cornelia Lange, Wolfgang Burgermeister, Kai Metge, Helen Braasch
      Pages 165-173
    5. Philippe Castagnone-Sereno, Chantal Castagnone, Cécile François, Pierre Abad
      Pages 187-195
  5. The Insect Vectors: Biology and Ecology

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 211-213
    2. Lee Robertson, A. García-Álvarez, Susana C. Arcos, M.A. Díez-Rojo, J. Pedro Mansilla, R. Sanz et al.
      Pages 221-234
    3. Etsuko Shoda-Kagaya, Miho Kawai, Tadashi Maehara, Ryûtarô Iwata, Akiomi Yamane
      Pages 235-242
  6. Ecology and Modeling

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 255-257
    2. Sam Evans, Hugh Evans, M. Ikegami
      Pages 259-278
    3. Kazuyoshi Futai, Yuko Takeuchi
      Pages 279-290
  7. The Tree: Physiology, Resistance and Histopathology as a Result of Pine Wilt Disease

  8. Pinewood Nematode and Insect Vector Control Methods

  9. Back Matter
    Pages 405-405

About this book


The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), is a serious pest and pathogen of forest tree species, in particular among the genus Pinus. It was first reported from Japan in the beginning of the XXth century, where it became the major ecological catastrophe of pine forests, with losses reaching over 2 million m3/ year in the 1980s. It has since then spread to other Asian countries such as China, Taiwan and Korea, causing serious losses and economic damage. In 1999, the PWN was first detected in the European Union (EU), in Portugal, and immmediately prompted several government (national and EU) actions to assess the extent of the nematode’s presence, and to contain B. xylophilus and its insect vector (Monochamus galloprovincialis) to an area with a 30km radius in the Setúbal Peninsula, 20 km south of Lisbon. International wood trade, with its political as well as economic ramifications, has been seriously jeopardized. The origin of the population of PWN found in Portugal remains elusive. Several hypotheses may be considered regarding pathway analysis, basically from two general origins: North America or the Far East (Japan or China). World trade of wood products such as timber, wooden crates, palettes, etc… play an important role in the potential dissemination of the pinewood nematode. In fact, human activities involving the movement of wood products may be considered the single most important factor in spreading of the PWN. Despite the dedicated and concerted actions of government agencies, this disease continues to spread. Very recently (2006), in Portugal, forestry and phytosanitary authorities (DGRF and DGPC) have announced a new strategy for the control and ultimately the erradication of the nematode, under the coordination of the national program for the control of the pinewood nematode (PROLUNP). Research regarding the bioecology of the nematode and insect as well as new detection methods, e.g., involving real-time PCR, has progressed since 1999. International agreements (GATT, WTO) and sharing of scientific information is of paramount importance to effectively control the nematode and its vector, and thus protect our forest ecosystems and forest economy.


Flora Forestry Fungi Ordination Wood products databases ecology forest physiology seedlings

Editors and affiliations

  • Manuel M. Mota
    • 1
  • Paulo Vieira
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAM – Universidade de ÉvoraPortugal

Bibliographic information