Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology

Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and other Invertebrate Pests

  • Lawrence A. Lacey
  • Harry K. Kaya

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XVIII
  2. Introduction

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Harry K. Kaya, Lawrence A. Lacey
      Pages 3-7
    3. Andrew C. Chapple, Roger A. Downer, Roy P. Bateman
      Pages 9-34
  3. Statistical Considerations

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 35-35
    2. James F. Campbell, Stephen P. Wraight
      Pages 37-69
  4. Application Equipment

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 71-71
    2. R. P. Bateman, G. A. Matthews, F. R. Hall
      Pages 73-98
    3. Karl Mierzejewski, Richard C. Reardon, Harold Thistle, Normand R. Dubois
      Pages 99-126
    4. Fernando E. Vega, Patrick F. Dowd, Lawrence A. Lacey, Judith K. Pell, D. Michael Jackson, Michael G. Klein
      Pages 127-146
  5. Overview of Pathogen Groups

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 147-147
    2. Jenny S. Cory, Hugh F. Evans
      Pages 149-174
    3. Stephen F. Garczynski, Joel P. Siegel
      Pages 175-197
    4. Leellen F. Solter, James J. Becnel
      Pages 199-221
    5. Stephen P. Wraight, G. Douglas Inglis, Mark S. Goettel
      Pages 223-248
    6. Albrecht M. Koppenhöfer
      Pages 249-264
  6. Naturally Occurring Pathogens

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 265-265
    2. Joseph S. Elkinton, John Burand
      Pages 283-296
  7. Exotic Pathogens

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 297-297
    2. Ann E. Hajek, Italo Delalibera Júnior, Michael L. McManus
      Pages 299-325
  8. Evaluation of Entomopathogens in Specific Systems

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 327-327
    2. Stephen P. Wraight, Marc Sporleder, Tadeusz J. Poprawski, Lawrence A. Lacey
      Pages 329-359
    3. John D. Vandenberg, Stephen P. Wraight, Anthony M. Shelton
      Pages 361-374
    4. Leslie C. Lewis, Denny J. Bruck, Jan J. Jackson
      Pages 375-392
    5. H. Y. Choo, W. C. Rice
      Pages 393-409
    6. Flávio Moscardi, Daniel R. Sosa-Gómez
      Pages 411-426
    7. D. C. Steinkraus, S. Y. Young, D. H. Gouge, J. E. Leland
      Pages 427-455
    8. Parwinder S. Grewal
      Pages 457-461
    9. K. van Frankenhuyzen, R.C. Reardon, N. R. Dubois*
      Pages 481-504
    10. Lawrence A. Lacey, Steven P. Arthurs, Alan L. Knight, Jürg Huber
      Pages 528-546
    11. David I. Shapiro-Ilan, Lawrence A. Lacey, Joel P. Siegel
      Pages 547-565
    12. Clayton W. Mccoy, Robin J. Stuart, Larry W. Duncan, David I. Shapiro-ilan
      Pages 567-581
    13. Steven R. Booth, Frank A. Drummond, Eleanor Groden
      Pages 583-598
    14. Denny J. Bruck, Ralph E. Berry, Jack D. DeAngelis
      Pages 609-626
    15. G. Douglas Inglis, Mark S. Goettel, Martin A. Erlandson, David K. Weaver
      Pages 627-654
    16. Michael G. Klein, Parwinder S. Grewal, Trevor A. Jackson, Albrecht M. Koppenhöfer
      Pages 655-675
    17. Jeffrey C. Lord, James F. Campbell, John D. Sedlacek, Patrick V. Vail*
      Pages 677-693
    18. Richard J. Milner, Roberto M. Pereira
      Pages 695-711
    19. Ole Skovmand, James Kerwin, Lawrence A. Lacey
      Pages 735-750
    20. Michael J. Wilson
      Pages 751-765
  9. Transgenic Plants

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 767-767
  10. Resistance

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 791-791
    2. A.M. Shelton, R.T. Roush, P. Wang, J.-Z. Zhao
      Pages 793-811
  11. Non-target Organisms

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 813-813

About this book


The Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology is designed to provide background and instruction on a broad spectrum of techniques and their use in the evaluation of entomopathogens in the field. The second edition of the Field Manual provides updated information and includes two additional chapters and 12 new contributors. The intended audience includes researchers, graduate students, practitioners of integrated pest management (IPM), regulators and those conducting environmental impact studies of entomopathogens. Although it can function as a stand alone reference, the Field Manual is complementary to the laboratory oriented Manual of Techniques in Insect Pathology and to comprehensive texts in insect pathology.

The Editors have structured the 40 chapters of the Field Manual into 10 sections to provide the tools required for planning experiments with entomopathogens and their implementation in the field. The basic tools include chapters on the theory and practice of application of microbial control agents (MCAs) (Section I), statistical considerations in the design of experiments (Section II), and three chapters on application equipment and strategies (Section III). Section IV includes individual chapters on the major pathogen groups (virus, bacteria, microsporidia, fungi, and nematodes) and special considerations for their evaluation under field conditions. This section sets the stage for subsequent chapters on the impact of naturally occurring and introduced exotic pathogens and inundative application of MCAs. Twenty-three chapters on the application and evaluation of MCAs in a wide variety of agricultural, forest, domestic and aquatic habitats comprise Section VII of the Field Manual. In addition to insect pests, the inclusion of mites and slugs broadens the scope of the book. Most of the chapters in this section include step by step instructions on handling of inoculum, design of field experiments and experimental plots and application and assessment of efficacy of dozens of MCAs. Several of these chapters include supplementary techniques and media for conducting follow up laboratory studies for confirmation of infection, determination of persistence, etc. The three final chapters include: special consideration for evaluation of Bt transgenic plants (Section VIII); resistance to insect pathogens and strategies to manage resistance (Section IX); and guidelines for evaluating effects of MCAs on nontarget organisms (Section X).

Due to uncertainty regarding the future availability of organophosphate and other conventional chemical insecticides, MCAs will play increasingly important roles in IPM. The Field Manual will provide researchers and IPM practitioners with techniques and practical guidance for the study and optimal use of MCAs in a variety of settings.


Fungi Lepidoptera bacteria corn ecosystems environment forest insects invertebrates pathology pest control plants transgenic plants

Editors and affiliations

  • Lawrence A. Lacey
    • 1
  • Harry K. Kaya
    • 2
  1. 1.USDA-ARSWapatoUSA
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Bibliographic information