Nitrogen Cycling in the Americas: Natural and Anthropogenic Influences and Controls

  • Luiz A. Martinelli
  • Robert W. Howarth

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-2
  2. Luiz A. Martinelli, Robert W. Howarth, Elvira Cuevas, Solange Filoso, Amy T. Austin, Loreta Donoso et al.
    Pages 3-24
  3. David W. Schindler, Peter J. Dillon, Hans Schreier
    Pages 25-44
  4. Amy T. Austin, Gervasio Piñeiro, Marina Gonzalez-Polo
    Pages 45-60
  5. Solange Filoso, Luiz Antonio Martinelli, Robert W. Howarth, Elizabeth W. Boyer, Frank Dentener
    Pages 61-89
  6. Jorge R. Ortiz-Zayas, Elvira Cuevas, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Loreto Donoso, Ivonne Trebs, Debora Figueroa-Nieves et al.
    Pages 109-133
  7. Mercy J. Borbor-Cordova, Elizabeth W. Boyer, William H. Mcdowell, Charles A. Hall
    Pages 135-161
  8. R. W. Howarth, D. P. Swaney, E. W. Boyer, R. Marino, N. Jaworski, C. Goodale
    Pages 163-186
  9. Donald Scavia, Suzanne B. Bricker
    Pages 187-208
  10. M. M. C. Bustamante, E. Medina, G. P. Asner, G. B. Nardoto, D. C. Garcia-Montiel
    Pages 209-237
  11. Vera L. M. Huszar, Nina F. Caraco, Fabio Roland, Jonathan Cole
    Pages 239-250
  12. Jean P. H. B. Ometto, James R. Ehleringer, Tomas F. Domingues, Joseph A. Berry, Françoise Y. Ishida, Edmar Mazzi et al.
    Pages 251-274

About this book


The rate of creation of reactive nitrogen (NR) on the earth has dramatically increased in the last half century mainly due to the production of N-fertilizer through the Haber-Bosch process, fossil fuel combustion, and the cultivation of plants that fix N from the atmosphere. The anthropogenic production of NR has been especially high in developed countries of the temperate zone, such as the USA and Canada, where severe eutrophication of estuaries and coastal zones, acidification of lakes and streams, loss of biodiversity, and reduced forest productivity have become common environmental problems associated with increasing nitrogen loads to ecosystems.

However, important drivers responsible for the increase of the production of NR in the temperate zone are increasingly influencing the nitrogen cycle in rapidly developing regions of the world, such as the Tropics and Sub-Tropics, including most of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Advances in our understanding of the nitrogen cycle and the impact of anthropogenic activities on regional to global scales depend on the expansion of scientific studies to these fast-developing regions.

This book presents a series of studies from across the Americas whose aim is to highlight key natural processes that control nitrogen cycling as well as discuss the main anthropogenic influences on the nitrogen cycle in both the tropical and temperate regions of the Americas.


Anthropogenic Influences Biodiversity Biogeochemical Cycles Eutrophication Nitrogen Cycling Vegetation Water Quality combustion ecosystem environment

Editors and affiliations

  • Luiz A. Martinelli
    • 1
  • Robert W. Howarth
    • 2
  1. 1.Cena-University of São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Cornell UniversityUSA

Bibliographic information