Cocoa Pioneer Fronts since 1800

The Role of Smallholders, Planters and Merchants

  • William Gervase Clarence-Smith

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xii
  2. William Gervase Clarence-Smith, François Ruf
    Pages 1-22
  3. François Ruf, Pierre Ehret, Yoddang
    Pages 212-231
  4. Back Matter
    Pages 233-247

About this book


The livelihood of Third World farmers conflicts with saving the remaining tropical forests. The advantages of growing cocoa in cleared primary forest drive from the fertility of virgin soils and low concentrations of weeds, pests and diseases. The consequent emergence of new 'pioneer fronts' has also been affected by cheap labour, relative commodity prices, pests and diseases, credit resources, entrepreneurship, information, physical infrastructures, and government policies. The dynamism of smallholdings and competitive private marketing over estates and marketing boards is demonstrated.


conflicts forest Planters soil trade

Editors and affiliations

  • William Gervase Clarence-Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Oriental and African StudiesUniversity of LondonUK

Bibliographic information